Physical Science BJU ed. 5 1st semester terms exam review

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Worldview
The perspective from which a person sees or interprets all matters of life.
Creation Mandate
God's command given to mankind in Genesis 1:28 to exercise dominion over the world by wisely using the resources He has placed here.
Scientism
Science=ultimate truth
Model
A workable explanation or description of a natural or artificial phenomenon. Models may be physical, virtual, or conceptual. Also, the act of creating a model.
Conceptual model
An explanation or description of a phenomenon in the form of a mathematical equation, a computer program, or a graph.
Workability
The usefulness of something for a particular purpose. The workability of a scientific model is its most important property.
Bias
An inclination one has about an idea after thinking about its pros and cons. Also a built-in error in an instrument.
Historical science
The application of scientific principles to create models of events and processes that occurred in the unobservable past, made on the basis of observable evidence that exists today. Also called origins science
Inference
deduction
Paradigm
The accepted body of knowledge, theories, hypotheses, and experimental approaches to answering question of science. It dictates the presuppositions used in a branch of science, and all workers in the science agree to certain rules set by the paradigm.
Theory
A scientific model that explains a related set of phenomena according to a certain paradigm. This definition is valid even though the theory may not be ultimately true or even plausible. Truth and plausibility are established by the relationship of the paradigm to the absolute truths found in the Bible.
Phenomenon
An observable or measurable object, process, or property. Science studies phenomena.
Hypothesis
A temporary, testable explanation of a phenomenon that stimulates and guides further scientific investigation.
Law
A model, often expressed as a mathematical equation, that describes phenomena under certain conditions. A law makes no attempt to explain or account for the phenomena.
Scientific methodology
Sometimes called the scientific method, it is a logical sequence of steps acceptable to the scientific paradigm that ensures that the models and conclusion that result from the work are valid and useful for supporting further scientific work.
Data
Plural form of the Latin word datum, but usually used for both the singular and plural forms. Information collected through observation and often used as the basis for scientific models.
Qualitative data
Scientific observations resulting from detailed word or other non-numerical descriptions (color, texture, or sound)
Quantitative data
Numerical scientific observations that result form measurements with instruments or from a method relating to counting. Usually consists of a number and a unit. (surveys, statistics)
Operational science
Scientific work that involves observing and testing present-day phenomena
Matter
One of the fundamental concepts of creation. Anything that occupies space and has mass. This is an operational definition-a statement of conditions that something must meet in order to be considered matter. We cannot define matter in simpler terms.
Particle theory
The concept that all matter is made of exceedingly small particles. Also called atomism. The particle theory of matter is one of the most fundamental concepts supporting models of the universe.
Atom
The basic particle of matter from which all other matter is constructed. It consists of protons, electrons, and (usually) neutrons.
Bond
Any permanent attraction between atoms resulting from the sharing of valence electrons to a greater or lesser extent. Chemical bonds cannot be broken by simple physical changes.
Diffusion
The process of spreading out and mixing due to particle motion.
Brownian motion
The microscopic, random jostling of suspended matter due to the collisions of innumerable gas or liquid particles in which the matter is suspended.
Kinetic-molecular theory
The concept that tiny particle in constant, random motion make up all matter.
Phase
Matter that has distinctly different properties from other matter that it is mixed with. One of the physical states of a substance in a mixture of its different states. A separate part of a heterogeneous mixture.
State
A physical form of matter determined by the arrangement and energy of its particles. The three most common states of mater are solid, liquid, and gas.
Physical property
Any property of matter that can be observed or measured without altering its chemical composition.
Physical change
Any change that does not alter the composition of a substance or its nuclear properties.
Chemical property
A property of a substance that describes how its chemical identity changes in the presence of another substance or under certain conditions.
Chemical change
Any change in a substance that alters its composition.
Parallax error
Displacement of observed object due to the change in the position of the observer.
Metric system
A system of measurement in which all units of a given dimension are related to each other by powers of 10. Main metric system today is the SI.
SI
The global scientific metric system. The abbreviation stands for the French name Systeme International d'Unites.
Accuracy
An assessment of the measurement error. An indication of ow close a measurement is to its acceptable value. A smaller error means a more accurate measurement.
Precision
An assessment of the exactness of a measurement. A more precise measurement has more known digits than a less precise measurement of the same quantity.. The fineness of an instrumetn's scale markings determines the maximum precision of a measurement
Repeatability
An assessment of the random errors associated with a series of measurements. Results showing small random errors around an average value for a given measurement have good repeatability.
Significant digit (SD)
A digit in a measurement used to communicate the precision of the measurement. The significant digits in a measurement are all the digits known form the instrument scale plus one estimated digit determined by the user.
Scientific notation
A convenient way to express very large or small numbers. We r=write the notation in the form M x 10^n, where M is a number greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10, and n is a positive or negative integer.
Weight (w)
The measure of the earth's gravity acting on the matter in an object. Weight is a force measured in newtons (N).
Mass (m)
The measure of the inertia of matter in an object or within the boundaries of a physical system.
Volume (v)
The space enclosed or occupied by an object or within the boundaries of a physical system. Scientists derive volumetric units from the cube of units of length.
Density (p)
The mass of a substance or object contained within a stated volumetric unit.
Mechanics
The scientific study of forces and motion, which consists of kinematics, dynamics and statics.
System
A distinct part of the universe, from elementary particles to galaxies, that we may want to study or measure. It is separated fro its surroundings by an actual or imaginary boundary.
Frame of reference
The geometric space containing the point of reference and coordinate axes from which a person observes or measures position and movement.
Interval
A span of time during which we observe a phenomenon. We calculate an interval by subtracting the initial time from the final time. It is always a positive number.
Kinematics
The science of describing how things move. It involves the measurements and calculations of position, time, velocity, acceleration, and displacement within a reference frame.
Distance
A positive scalar quantity that is the total linear dimension traveled by a moving object during a time interval. It also may be the magnitude of displacement.
Displacement
A quantity that describes the net distance and direction of motion. It is always a vector quantity and is represented graphically by a vector arrow whose tail is at the starting point of motion and whose tip is at the ending point.
Speed
The rate of motion of a system. As with any rate, we express it as a change of position (a distance) with time. It may also be the magnitude of velocity. It is always a scalar quantity.
Velocity
The rate of displacement of a system. It is always a vector quantity that points in the same direction as he displacement vector of the system.
Acceleration
The rate of change of the velocity or speed of a system during a time interval. It may be a vector or scalar quantity.
Force
A push or pull on a system. It may be a vector or scalar quantity.
Contact force
A force that acts between systems only when one system touches another.
Field force
A field in which a force vector exists at every point in the field. Isaac Newton originally called field forces action-at-a-distance forces to distinguish them from contact forces.
Net force
The single zero or nonzero force acting on a system that is the sum of all external forces acting on the system. If the external forces are balanced, then the net force is zero.
Inertia
The tendency of any kind of matter to resist change in its motion. Mass is a measure of inertia.
Laws of motion
Generally refers to Newton's three laws of motion, which define the science of dynamics and apply to all areas of mechanics. These are the law of inertia, the law of accelerated motion, and the law of action-reaction.
Law of inertia
Newton's first law of motion. Objects at rest remain at rest and objects in motion continue in a straight line at a constant speed unless acted on by a net external force.
Mechanical equilibrium
The condition in which all forces acting on a system are balanced as indicated by the system's lack of acceleration.
Action-reaction principle
Newton's third law of motion. For every external force exerted on a system by its surroundings, the system exerts an equal but opposite force on its surroundings.
Friction
A contact force that opposes the movement of objects past each other. It may be a vector or scalar quantity.
Free fall
The condition of an object accelerated by the force of gravity alone with no other external forces acting on it. True free fall can occur only i a vacuum.
Gravitational acceleration
The acceleration of an object due to gravity. At the earth's surface, it's average magnitude is about 9.8 m/s^2, regardless of the object's mass. It may be a vector or scalar quantity.
Drag
A form of friction exerted by a fluid on an object moving through the fluid or as the fluid flows around the object.
Terminal velocity
The maximum possible speed that an object in free fall can achieve in a fluid, such as the atmosphere. It occurs when fluid drag balances the force of gravity.
Momentum
A property of a moving system that is proportional to its speed and mass. Isaac Newton called it the quantity of motion.
Efficiency
For a machine or process, the ratio of energy or work produced to the energy or work that was put into the machine or process. It is a measure of the effectiveness of converting energy from one form to another.
Specific heat
The amount of thermal energy 1g of a substance must gain or lose to change its temperature 1 degrees Celsius
Insulators
A material that does not easily conduct thermal energy or electricity. Insulators are poor conductors with tightly bound valence electrons.
Conductors
A material through which heat and electrical current easily flow. Good conductors are usually materials that contain mobile electrons, such as most metals.
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