Airway, Breathing, Circulation, and Defibrillation
When giving CPR to an adult, how far should you press down with each compression?
1 1/2 to 2 inches pressing straight down to the breastbone.
In an adult how many compressions should you deliver in 1 minute?
Why is recoil important during compressions?
It allows complete refilling of the heart. Incomplete recoil will reduce the blood flow created by the chest compressions.
How long should take to deliver a regular breath?
1 second to deliver each breath. You must deliver enough air to make the victims chest rise.
What is the compression-ventilation ratio for a one man and two man adult CPR?
What is the compression-ventilation ratio for a one man CPR on a child or infant?
What is the compression-ventilation ratio for a two man rescuer infant or child CPR?
When performing one man Adult CPR, how long should you check to the breathing of the patient
At least 5 seconds, no longer than 10 seconds.
Rescuers should try to minimize interruptions to less than ______ seconds.
How far should you press down on a CHILD AGE 1 TO PUBERTY?
1/3 to 1/2 the depth of the chest with each compression
Why must you avoid over-inflation during rescue breathing?
May cause air gastric distention.
In adult CPR, should you leave the scene to call 911 before you initiate CPR?
Yes. If someone is near send them to call 911. If no one is near, leave the patient to dial 911.
When should you administer rescue breaths to victims? (2)
1- No breathing, but with a pulse 2- Those that are "gasping" inadequate breathing
Why is a modified lateral position (recovery position) used?
To prevent the airway from being obstructed by the tongue, mucus, or vomitus.
What type of clamp should you use on the 1 rescuer bag-valve-mask?
E-C clamp technique
How do you perform a E-C clamp technique one man? (3)
1- perform head tilt chin lift 2- Use the thumb and index fingers of one hand to make a "C" pressing on the edges of the mask 3- Use the remaining fingers to lift the angles of the jaw (3 fingers form an E)
How does an E-C clamp technique differ with 1 man and 2 man CPR?
Two rescuer CPR can use both hands to form the "E-C" technique.
When should you activate 911 for an adult?
When should you activate 911 for an child or infant?
After 5 cycles or 2 minutes of CPR
Where should you check the pulse on a child or an adult?
Where should you check the pulse on a infant?
When should you start CPR on a INFANT OR CHILD?
1- If no pulse 2- or if pulse is <60
What compression method should you use for an adult?
Heel of one hand, other hand on top. OR 1 hand for small victims
What compression method should you use for a child?
2 fingers or 2 thumbs encircling
When dealing with a conscious chocking patient what treatment/ action should you take?
How long should you continue abdominal thrusts on a choking patient?
Repeat until the object is expelled or victim becomes unresponsive
In a conscious choking infant what action should you take?
5 chest thrusts and 5 back slaps. Continue until object is expelled or victim becomes unresponsive
When should perform a finger sweep during choking management in a unconscious patient?
Every time the rescuer opens the airway to deliver rescue breaths, the rescuer should look into the mouth and remove the object if seen.
What are the rescue breathing rates for an adult
10-12 times/min (1 breath every 5-6 seconds)
What are the rescue breathing rates for an child or infant?
12-20 times a minute (1 breath every 3-5 seconds)
How do you perform a back slap on an infant?
1- Hold the infant in one arm, head angled down 2- 5 slaps with the heel of the hand
Should you ever perform a blind finger sweep?
No, No, No! Never perform a blind finger sweep. Only perform a finger sweep if you can see the object!
On a choking pregnant or obese patient, should you use a chest thrust or an abdominal thrust?
In 2 rescuer adult CPR, when should they rescuers switch positions?
Rescuer 1 and 2 should change positions every 5 cycles (about 2 minutes) This will minimize fatigue and chest compressions will be more effective
Definition of a child
1 year old to the onset of puberty (12-14 years old)
Definition of an infant
under one year old
What is the most common cause of cardiac arrest in an infant/child?
Why is the 15:2 compression ratio used in a 2 man CPR to infants and children?
To provide more ventilation to the child/infant. Most common cause of cardiac arrest is due to a breathing problem
How do you perform a chest thrust on an obese or pregnant patient?
1- Wrap arms to the front of the patients chest 2- make a fist with one hand and place it over the sternum 3- Grab fist with other hand and give thrust
What is the most common cause of cardiac arrest?
What are the four components of the Chain of Survival?
1. Early Access 2. Early CPR 3. Early Defibrillation 4. Early Advanced Care
When is CPR most effective?
When started immediately after collapse
Name the two indications for CPR?
Cardiac Arrest and Respiratory Arrest
What are the 3 exceptions of not administering CPR?
1. Death 2. DNR 3. Advanced Healthcare Directives
Define Respiratory Arrest.
No breathing, but has a pulse
Define Cardiac Arrest.
No breathing and no pulse
How many seconds should it take for one cycle of CPR?