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sociology chapter 10
Terms in this set (48)
sex is defined as
the anatomical or other biological differences between males and females that originate in humane genes
gender is defined as
Norms, roles, and behaviors associated in a given society with being male or female
People whose gender identity, expression, or behavior differs from their assigned sex at birth or outside the two gender categories may be categorized as
gender roles are
Socially constructed and dynamic, continuously being learned and relearned
Which of the following is considered the "factory of gendered personalities"?
Sexual harassment typically occurs in a situation of unequal power. Which of the following examples does not illustrate this concept?
A server at a restaurant repeatedly asks a fellow server for a phone number after every shift
Who was the early feminist who coined the term sexuoeconomic relation, describing unhappy heterosexual relationships in which the sexual relationship was also an economic one?
Charlotte Perkins gilman
the belief that social equality should exist between the sexes
Feminism first emerged in the United States:
In connection with abolitionism and attempts to end slavery during the 1830s
Women's inequality is primarily the result of imperfect institutions, which can be corrected by reforms that do not fundamentally alter society itself. This statement reflects the beliefs of:
Sociologist C. J. Pascoe (2011) found in her ethnography of teenage boys that they reinforced norms of masculinity and heterosexuality by:
Disciplining behavior deemed inappropriate, feminine or otherwise "unmanly" by using homophobic slurs
Which of the following is not discussed as a common institution in which peers reinforce gender expectations?
patriarchy refers to
Any set of social relationships in which men dominate women
What landmark legislation required gender equity for men and women in every educational program receiving federal funding?
How early do sociologists believe parents begin socializing their children into gender?
at birth, sometimes even in utero
Martin and Fabes (2001) found that young girls who played in all-girl groups affirmed characteristics such as:
Encouragement and support
The difference between the earnings of women who work full-time year-round as a group and men who work full-time year-round as a group is called:
gender wage gap
The federal law that made unequal pay for equal work illegal is called:
equal pay act of 1963
Which of the following is a factual statement?
Women occupied only 18 CEO positions in the Fortune 500 companies in 2012
The nearly invisible promotional boost men gain in female-dominated occupations is referred to as:
The "hidden curriculum" refers to
The unspoken socialization to norms, values, and roles—including gender roles—that occurs in the classroom
Which of the following is associated with successful women's empowerment?
the second shift refers to
The unpaid housework women typically do after they come home from their paid employment
The demand or implication that a sexual favor will buy a promotion or just an opportunity to keep your job is:
Referred to as "quid pro quo" sexual harassment
Women's inequality is the result of the combination of capitalistic economic relations and male domination (patriarchy). Both must be fundamentally transformed before women can achieve equality. This statement reflects the beliefs of:
Feminism should aim to understand and end inequality for all women, regardless of race, class, nationality, age, sexual orientation, physical ability, or other characteristics. This statement reflects the beliefs of:
Women's inequality underlies all other forms of inequality, including economic inequality. This statement reflects the beliefs of:
the idea that the knowledge we create is conditioned by where we stand—that is, by our subjective social position, is referred to as:
Standpoint epistemology, a philosophical perspective that what we can know is affected by the position we occupy in society, is a major tenet of:
black feminist thought
The matrix of domination is a system in which:
Individuals are viewed as occupying statuses as members of both dominated and dominating groups.
Anthropological studies have found that inequalities in almost all known societies, past and present, favor men over women.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, ___ % of women aged 24 and older have earned a bachelor's degree, compared to ____ % of men.
in 2014, women working full-time and year-round earned about ___ % of what their male counterparts earned.
Functionalist sociologist Talcott Parsons argued that women were socialized to acquire ___ qualities needed in the private sphere, while men were socialized to acquire ___ qualities needed in the public sphere.
According to the International Labor Organization, about ___ % of forced labor and ___ of sex trafficking victims are women and girls.
One of the goals of ____ was to increase women's access to athletic teams and academic clubs.
Which of the following is one of David and Brannon's four "basic rules of manhood"?
a. No "helpful habits": avoid any hint of femininity.
Be a "big deal": acquire wealth, power, and status.
Sociologists do not distinguish between sex and gender—they consider them synonymous concepts.
Transgender people may have heterosexual, lesbian, gay, or bisexual sexual orientation.
Women, on average, score higher than men on the SATs.
Women, on average, graduate high school at higher rates than men.
Traditional gender roles are mostly the same in every society
Unlike other forms of media, video games do not typically portray women in stereotypically feminine roles.
Although a majority of women agree that a glass ceiling exists preventing them from reaching higher positions, very few men acknowledge its existence.
____ perceived the socialization of men and women into sex roles as a positively functional for society, contributing to economic and emotional stability.
Both men and women can be perpetrators and victims of sexual harassment
The glass escalator, the nearly invisible promotional boost men gain in female-dominated occupations, benefits all men, regardless of race.
a 2011 Pew Research Center survey found that women are more likely than men to say college was "very useful" in increasing their knowledge and helping them grow intellectually.
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