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Mental Health Diagnoses
Terms in this set (53)
What are the three variations of depression?
Major depression, minor depression, dysthymic disorder/dysthymia
severely interferes with daily life; episodic
less severe but chronic symptoms (2 years or longer)
Less severe and short-term
What are some possible explanations for more diagnoses of depression in women?
Gender norms, relationship expectations, longer lifespan, higher likelihood of seeking services
Name four ways depression might be more likely to appear in men
Escapist behavior, substance abuse, violence/control/irritability/abuse, risky behavior
Men may fail to ________ depression or tend to ______ it
Men experiencing symptoms of depression are less likely to do these two things
talk about their feelings & seek help
Schizophrenia is a ______ disorder, occurring in ______ _________, and looks ________ from one person to the next
psychotic, young adulthood, different
fixed beliefs despite conflicting evidence
involuntary and realistic false perceptions
Name the three elements of diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia
Some combination of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech/behavior, and negative symptoms; Leading to impairment in one or more domains; For at least 6 months
Name the three diagnostic considerations for schizophrenia
No single symptom or profile is characteristic; May look like depression, anxiety, anger, inappropriate behavior, etc; Individual may seem unaware/lack insight
Schizophrenia is often _______ although symptoms may ______ over time
Example of first generation antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia
Example of second generation antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia
Clozapine, Risperdal (1970s)
Antipsychotic medication treats ______ symptoms of schizophrenia only
What is used for negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia affects what percent of the population?
__% of individuals affected with schizophrenia commit suicide; __% attempt
Name three issues prevalent for individuals with schizophrenia
Homelessness, incarceration, employment
More people with schizophrenia diagnosis (are/are not) likely to be aggressive, and are more likely to be (victims/perpetrators) of violence
are NOT likely to be aggressive; are MORE likely to be victims
What is the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar I?
A manic episode
What is the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar II?
1. A hypomanic episode 2. A major depressive episode
Name the three criteria of a manic episode occurring in Bipolar I?
A distinct period of elevated, expansive, or irritable mood; Abnormally and increased goal-directed activity or energy; At least 1 week duration
What is the criteria of a hypomanic episode occurring in Bipolar II?
Similar to a manic episode, but shorter term and less severe
Name the two criteria of a depressive episode occurring in Bipolar II?
Depressed mood most of the time; Diminished interest and pleasure
Name the three diagnostic considerations for Bipolar Disorder
During (hypo)manic episodes, people often don't think they need treatment; Depression and mania may co-occur or moods may shift rapidly; Family history is a risk factor
Example of mood stabilizing medication to treat mania in Bipolar Disorder
Example of mood stabilizing medication to treat depression in Bipolar Disorder
List the five elements of personality disorders (there are 10 personality disorders in the DSM-5)
1. Patterns of inner experiences and behaviors; 2.At odds with individual's cultural expectations; 3. Inflexible and pervasive over time; 4. Onset in adolescence or adulthood; 5. Leading to distress or impairment
Name the two diagnostic criteria for schizoid personality disorder
1. Detachment from social relationships; 2. Restricted emotions in interpersonal settings
Three characteristics of schizoid personality disorder
1. Often seem indifferent to others' criticism or approval; 2. Display a "bland" or flat affect; 3. Respond inappropriately to social cues
Name the two diagnostic criteria for schizotypal personality disorder
1. Difficulty and discomfort with close relationships; 2. Cognitive and perceptual distortions
Cognitive and perceptual distortions in schizotypal personality disorder may include what five elements?
Ideas of reference, odd beliefs, magical thinking, suspiciousness, and paranoia
Name the three diagnostic criteria for Antisocial personality disorder
1. Disregard for others' rights (may include arrestable offenses, deceitfulness, impulsivity, recklessness, irresponsibility, lack of remorse) 2. Age 18 or older, 3. Evidence of Conduct Disorder before age 15
Name the diagnostic criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder
Instability in interpersonal relationships, self image, and affect
Give examples of what instability in Borderline PD may include
Efforts to avoid abandonment; Intense and polarized (all good or all bad) relationships, unstable self-image, impulsivity, mood swings, emptiness, angry outbursts, paranoia
What intervention is suggested for Borderline Personality Disorder?
Dialectal Behavior Therapy (DBT)
What are the four elements of DBT?
1. Mindfulness meditation (learning to observe thoughts, sensations, emotions while withholding judgment); 2. Interpersonal Skills; 3. How to tolerate distress; 4. How to manage emotional reactions
Name the three diagnostic criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder
1. Grandiosity 2. Need for admiration, 3. Lack of empathy
Examples of elements included in Narcissistic PD
exaggeration, fantasies of success and perfection, belief in oneself as "special", sense of entitlement, interpersonal exploitation, envy, arrogance, inability to understand others' feelings
Name the three diagnostic criteria of Avoidant PD
1. Social Inhibition 2. Feelings of inadequacy 3. Hypersensitivity to "criticism"
Name four tendencies of Avoidant PD
1. May avoid activities due to fear of rejection 2.Have strong need to be liked 3. Feel interpersonally inadequate 4. Be reluctant to take social or personal risks
Name the three diagnostic criteria of Dependent PD
1. Excessive need to be cared for 2. Submissive and "clingy" 3. Fear of separation
Give examples of tendencies associated with Dependent PD
May seek advice and reassurance for everyday decisions, want others to take responsibility, agree to avoid conflict, have difficulty initiating, feel uncomfortable alone, "jump" into relationships
Name the two diagnostic criteria of Obsessive-Compulsive PD
1. Orderliness, perfectionism and mental and interpersonal control 2. Lack of openness, flexibility, and efficiency
Give examples of tendencies associated with Obsessive-Compulsive PD
May be preoccupied with details, rules schedules and order; may be "perfectionist", "workaholic", morally inflexible, miserly, and have difficulty delegating
Difference between Schizoid and Schizotypal PDs
Schizoid wants to be left alone, Schizotypal includes odd beliefs & importance of symbols
DBT for Borderline PD is best performed in ______ settings
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is more about __________ _______ whereas Obsessive Compulsive PD is more about _______ _______
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder more about intrusive thoughts; Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder more about having control
Those affected by Avoidant PD feel that they are ____ ______ ______ and engage in _________
not good enough; withdrawal
Why are personality disorders diagnosed in adulthood?
By adulthood, personality is more stable, so it is more appropriate for diagnosis
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