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US History Fall Semester Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (100)
Written constitution serves as a higher law that everyone must must obey. Limited government; the rule of law.
part of ancient philosophers' idea of government. Everyone's interests were valued, everyone was equal.
form of government where all citizens exercise political power, directly or through their representatives
form of government that derives its powers directly or indirectly from the people, is administered by officials holding power for a limited time, incorporates representative institutions
State of Nature
condition of people living in a situation without government; anarchy.
higher law than human law, constitution or government can't violate this law, and if the government does not allow these people to have natural rights than people can form new government
a binding agreement made by two or more persons or parties. An example/ of a covenant is the Mayflower Contract
huge sea-creature possessing tremendous strength and power (bible); government united under the authority of a sovereign power (Hobbes)
believes that there is a right form of govt. (for the common good) and a corrupt form (private interests) *Middle class is best suited to rule.
believes in a judicious blend of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy is best.
believes that everyone is born with inalienable rights and if they are not protected then the people have the right to overthrow the govt.
believes that the people must have covenants and have one ruler, the leviathan during times of need.
Lockean term; collective agreement among people to set up a government and obey its laws
18th century revolution of thought which sought to apply scientific method to social and political life
To awake/become aware. Transatlantic movement 1730's-1750's.
time of reawakened interest in religion; religious meetings
government=sponsored church. In England/many Southern colonies= Anglican church; New England colonies = congregational (puritan) church
British policy to "neglect" the American colonies, and allow them to flourish with few economic or political restrictions. This led to considerable self-government in the colonies. British policy until 1763.
(Britain) The idea that representatives should come from specific local districts, and specifically represent the interests of that district's constituents. Individuals must be able to vote for a rep, in order for the rep to legislate on their behalf.
(America) the idea that representatives should come from specific local districts, and specifically represent the interests of that district's constituents. Individuals must be able to vote for a rep, in order for the rep to legislate on their behalf.
the supreme authority in a state. In Britain, this was believed to rest with Parliament. Americans came to reject this idea, and instead identified sovereignty with their colonial legislatures.
French & Indian War (7 Years War)
British Colonies vs. France in North America. British won the war and claimed land with the Treat of Paris
Proclamation of 1763
issued by King George III which did not allow settlement past a line in the appalachian mountains
introduced a new tax on the colonists by imposing duties on stamps needed for official documents.
The pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in which it advocated independence from Great Britain to people in the 13 colonies
Declaration of Independence
Statement adopted by the colonists on July 4, 1776 that stated that the Americans were no longer under
Britain's rule and that the 13 colonies would become its own new country
US ambassador sent to France and Federalist, did not attend Philadelphia Convention, wrote first draft of declaration of independence.
Articles of Confederation
America's first form of political organization, sovereign states, delegated limited powers to a weak central government, 1781-1788, replaced by the Constitution
alliance among a group of independent states, can suggest laws but can't enforce them
when the majority of the people infringe the rights of a minority
1786 rebellion led by Daniel Shays farmer, seeking debt relief.
One of the greatest influences on national government. Drafted the constitution
The gathering of 55 delegates(called framers of constitution) who met in Philadelphia in 1787 and drafted the constitution.
A form of government in which power is shared between a central government and state/local governments.
US constitution, laws passed by Congress and treaties of US shall be the "supreme law of the land" and binding on the states (Article VI Section 2)
Group of presidential electors who cast the official votes for Pres/VP. Each state's electors = total # of senators and reps
Creates and passes laws. Composed of both senate and the house of representatives
Composed of the President Vice President, and the Cabinet. They implement and enforce laws.
Responsible for judging and interpreting the law/constitution when necessary. So for court rulings/casings and such.
Separation of Powers
When government is divided into separate powers. For example, the US Government has separation of powers, the 3 Branches.
Checks and balances
a type of system implemented in a government of separated institutions, in which its separated institutions must depend on one another in order to function. Making it so that not one of the branches could overpower one another and must "check and balance" one another.
aka Connecticut Compromise. Settled the differences b/w the NJ and VA plans @ Constitutional Convention, by providing for bicameral legislature. NJ would argue for equal representation for each state; meanwhile VA would argue for representation proportional to population. The compromise would be Senate=equal representation for each state. House of Rep=representation proportional to population.
Provided that each enslaved person should count as 3/5 of a person, in order to determine a state's number of representatives to Congress AND to determine the direct taxes levied on that state. Eliminated by 14th amendment.
Formal approval of the Constitution, which required conventions in 9 of 13 states to ratify.
Would advocate for the establishment of the Bill of Rights. The word fear perfectly characterizes them because they would constantly fear that the government would become too strong.
Believes that the rights of the people are undefined. There has to be a strong government in order to protect their rights therefore fought for the approval of the constitution and disapproved the adding on of the Bill of Rights.
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments of the constitution that protected the rights of the people.
Protects freedom of expression (speech, press, religion, assembly/petition).
The idea that the Constituion can change over time, through the amendment process, in order to better match the changing character of the American people. Aristotle's influence.
Free exercise clause
Government may not prevent you from practicing your religion (unless you are violating other's rights).
Congress may not establish any law that could in any way support a religion
Separation of Church and State
The lack of an established church or the state supporting one religion over others.
The idea that you treat others like children even though they really aren't. It masked and justified the brutal reality of slavery.
The social movement that advocated for the immediate emancipation of slaves
A war between citizens of the same country. America had one from 1861-1865, and it was between the confederates and the union.
Missouri would become a slave state, but other parts of the Louisiana purchase would be open to slavery only if they lay south of Missouri's southern border. North of that would be free territory.
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
Would attempt to enforce a section of the U.S. constitution that required the return of runaway slaves, and anyone could be forced to help capture all African Americans even if they weren't slaves back to the south.
Dred Scott Decision
Dred Scott, an enslaved African Americans whose master had taken him to the free state of Illinois and then Missouri. His master would still keep him enslaved, and Scott would sue and his case would go all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. The decision was that African Americans are not citizens so his case is not valid. The national government did not have the right to exclude slavery from the territories, and the due process clause of the fifth amendment protected property rights.
determination of the status of slavery in new states/ territories by the votes of local settlers; not Congress
Separation of Southern States from the Union (1860-1861)
Issued by President Abraham Lincoln, and would declare that all African Americans are free under the area controlled by the union
Rebuilding and Reintergration of the South into the US, 1865-1876 (post Civil War)
13th, 14th, 15th Amendments
13th amendment abolished slaver. 14th amendment guarantees citizenship regardless of race. 15th amendment prohibits denial of rights to vote based on race.
An annual tax that had to be paid before being eligible to vote. Both black and white sharecroppers were often were usually too poor to pay the poll tax.
Several Southern states added this clause to their constitutions and it stated that even if a man had failed the literacy test or couldn't afford the poll tax, he was still entitled to vote as long as he, his father, or his grandfather had been able to vote before January 1, 1867. This was done in order to reinstate white voters specifically. January 1, 1867 is an important date because before then freed slaves, did not have the right to vote.
The time between the Civil War and World War 1 during which the U.S. population and economy grew quickly, there was a lot of political corruption and corporate financial misdealings and many wealthy people lived very fancy lives.
The development of industries in a country on a wide scale
A steel-making process in which impurities are removed from molten iron by oxidation
Munn v. Illinois
A united states supreme court case in which the court upheld the power of government to regulate private industries
Interstate Commerce Act & Commission
ICA: A United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry particularly its monopolistic practices, The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did not empower the government to fix specific rates.
ICC: Independent federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers that transported goods and people between states.
Roibber barons/captains of industry
Captains of industry: utilizing technology, purchasing out other steel companies (making money), making manufacturing processes, making more efficient products, cheaper and more available, improving economy, making jobs for poor people.
Robber barons: purchasing out other steel companies, buying out suppliers in attempt to control raw materials + transit systems, paying employees very low money, selling oil at lower cost than the price it costed to make, driving out competitors, hiking prices way above the originals
Andrew Carnegie/U.S. Steel
An American Industrial leader of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Made fortune in steel.
Companies that would team with each other, and then set their prices the same. By the end of a certain amount of time, they would split their profit evenly.
The combination of firms that shared stockholders and profit. Somewhat legal (and illegal) way to monopolize industry.
When a company would buy all of the raw materials, transportations, and distribution systems.
When a company buys the other businesses of the same trade.
Economic term where the government does not participate in the economic system and has a hands-off approach.
The idea where the rich would continue to be rich, and the poor would continue to be poor. The poor are week and will not survive, and there would be a constant cycle of capitalism which would cause a larger gap between the rich and the poor.
John D. Rockefeller/Standard Oil
He heaped large profits, paid his employees very low money, sold oil at lower cost than the price it costed to make, and drove out his competitors. Once he controlled the market, he hiked prices way above the originals. Critics began to call them "robber barons".
To buy out the stock of other companies and completely wipe out competition.
When workers would unite for improved working conditions
The Homestead Strike
Steelworkers organized a strike in June 1892. President decided to cut wages. Strike went on until November. Union gave into the company.
The Pullman Strike
Pullman company laid off more than 3000 employees + cut wages. Led to violent strike in 1894. Pullman company failed to restore wages/decrease rents and did not want to negotiate with the strikers. Debs was sent to jail, railroads blacklisted many workers which couldn't get people jobs
Court order requiring person(s) to stop a specific action
Contract agreed to by workers (usually after a failed strike) stating that they would not join a union
Immigration station in NY harbor. Immigrants arriving from all over the world, but especially European, would be taken to Ellis Island for: medical exams, document checks, etc. Average length of time spent was 6 hours
Immigration station in SF bay. Mostly served Asian immigrants. Immigrants had medical exams, document check, and harsh questioning. Average length of stay was a few months.
Favoritism towards native-born Americans; led to anti immigration groups and laws.
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
Law restricting immigration of Chinese to the US; only select groups (merchants, teachers, students, etc.) were not allowed but laborers were not.
Gentlemen's Agreement (1907)
Immigration agreement between Japan and the US, negotiated by President Theodore Roosevelt. Japan agreed to end migration of most Japanese to the US, in return for Japanese American children attending "white" public schools in SF.
Growth of cities, mostly in the regions of the Northeast and Midwest
Multi-family apartment building in Gilded Age cities
Transportation systems designed to transport large #s of people along fixed routes.
Education programs designed to help immigrants assimilate into the American culture (citizenship, English, cooking lessons).
Social Gospel Movement
Reform movement that preached salvation through service to the poort
Community center that provided assistance in immigrant, poor neighborhoods
A pioneer American settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace.
An organized group that controlled the activities of a political machine
Illegal use of political power for personal gain
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