TLE (2nd Term)


Terms in this set (...)

A method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
A powder made by grinding uncooked cereal grains or other seeds or roots. It is the main ingredient of bread.
Types of flour
1. Wheat
2. All Purpose
3. Cake
4. Brown
5. Pastry
6. Whole wheat
7. Granary
can provide structure, leavening, richness, color, and flavor to baked products.
- Sweetness flavor
- creaming/foaming agent with fats
- increase volume of the bread
- richer crust
Types of sugar
1. Brown
2. Confectioners
3. Granulated
Leavening agent
substance causing expansion of doughs and batters by the release of gases within such mixtures, producing baked products with porous structure.
Biological leavening agent
- cake yeast
- dry and instant
Chemical leavening agent
- baking soda
- baking powder
Baking soda
Baking soda is pure sodium bicarbonate. When baking soda is combined with moisture and an acidic ingredient (e.g., yogurt, chocolate, buttermilk, honey), the resulting chemical reaction produces bubbles of carbon dioxide.
Baking powder
Baking powder is a combination of baking soda plus another acid, in the presence of a slow additive. All baking power needs is moisture for a reaction to occur, no added acid necessary.
Mechanical leavening agent
- creaming
- whisk
It is a single fat or oil or a combination of fats and oils, which tenderizes the product by preventing the cohesion of gluten strands during mixing.
Forms of shortening
- butter
- vegetable oil
- vegetable shortening
- lard
- margarine
This is the cheapest ingredient in baking. It enhances the shelf life by providing proper moisture that will keep the baked product fresh longer.
It creates tender crumb when used in place of water.
- homogenized
- pasteurized
- condensed
- evaporated
Minor ingredient
- spices and seeds
- flavor and extracts
- salt
Measuring spoon
is used to measure SMALL amounts of dry and liquid ingredients.
Dry measuring cup
is used to measure DRY ingredients like flour and sugar.
Liquid measuring cup
is used to measure LIQUID ingredients like water and milk.
tsp or t
Tbsp, tbsp, or T
Fluid ounce
fl oz
°C to °F
Formula: (°C x 9/5) + 32
°F to °C
Formula: ( °F - 32) x 5/9
Vigorously agitating foods to incorporate air or develop gluten
Mixing two or more ingredients until evenly distributed
Vigorously combining softened fat and sugar while incorporating air
Very gently incorporating ingredients such as whipping cream or whipped eggs into dry ingredients, a batter or cream
Working a dough to develop gluten
Passing one or more dry ingredients through a wire mesh to remove lumps, combine and aerate
Gently mixing ingredients by hand until evenly blended
Beating vigorously to incorporate air
Incorporating solid fat into dry ingredients only until lumps of desired size remain
Baking wares
are made of glass or metal containers for batter and dough with various sizes and shapes.
Cake pans
comes in different sizes and shapes and may be round , square, rectangular or heart shaped.
Tube center pan
is deeper than a round pan and with hollow center, it is removable which is used to bake chiffon type cakes.
Muffin pan
has 12 formed cups for baking muffins and cup cakes.
Pop over pan
is used for cooking pop over
Jelly roll pan
is shallow rectangular pan used for baking rolls
Bundt pan
is a round pan with scalloped sides used for baking elegant and special cakes.
Custard cup
is made of porcelain or glass used for baking individual custard.
Loaf pan
is used to bake loaf bread
Biscuit and doughnut cutter
is used to cut and shape biscuit or doughnut.
Cutting tools
include a knife and chopping board that are used to cut glazed fruit, nuts, or other ingredients in baking.
Electric mixer
is used for different baking procedure for beating, stirring and blending.
Flour sifter
is used for sifting flour.
is used to grate cheese, chocolate, and other fresh fruits .
Measuring cup
a. A graduated cup with fractions (1,3/4, 2/3, ½,1/3,1/4,1/6) marked on each side.
b. A measuring glass made of transparent or plastic is more accurate for measuring.
Measuring spoons
consist of a set of measuring spoons used to measure small quantities of ingredients.
Mixing bowl
comes in graduated sizes and has sloping sides used for mixing ingredients .
Mortar and pestle
used to pound or ground ingredients .
Pastry bag
a funnel shaped container of icing or whipped cream.
Pastry tip
is a pointed metal or plastic tube connected to the opening of the pastry bag and is used to form desired designs.
Pastry blender
has a handle and with wire which used to cut fat or shortening in the preparation of pies, biscuits or doughnuts.
Pastry brush
is used in greasing pans or surface of pastries and breads.
Rotary egg beater
is used in beating eggs or whipping cream.
a small implement with a broad, flat, flexible blade used to mix, spread and lift material
is used to in timing baked products, the rising of yeast and to check the doneness of cakes.
Weighing scale
is used to measure ingredients in large quantities.
are enclosed spaces in which food is heated, usually by hot air.
Rack oven
It is a large oven into which entire racks full of sheet pans can be wheeled for baking.
Deck oven
Designed with more baking chambers
Convection oven
an oven that uses a fan to circulate hot air over food. It has a fan and exhaust system that a regular oven does not.
Dutch oven
Heavy pot with tight lid; may have rack at the bottom; used on range or in oven.