A method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
A powder made by grinding uncooked cereal grains or other seeds or roots. It is the main ingredient of bread.
Types of flour
1. Wheat 2. All Purpose 3. Cake 4. Brown 5. Pastry 6. Whole wheat 7. Granary
can provide structure, leavening, richness, color, and flavor to baked products.
- Sweetness flavor - creaming/foaming agent with fats - increase volume of the bread - richer crust
Types of sugar
1. Brown 2. Confectioners 3. Granulated
substance causing expansion of doughs and batters by the release of gases within such mixtures, producing baked products with porous structure.
Biological leavening agent
- cake yeast - dry and instant
Chemical leavening agent
- baking soda - baking powder
Baking soda is pure sodium bicarbonate. When baking soda is combined with moisture and an acidic ingredient (e.g., yogurt, chocolate, buttermilk, honey), the resulting chemical reaction produces bubbles of carbon dioxide.
Baking powder is a combination of baking soda plus another acid, in the presence of a slow additive. All baking power needs is moisture for a reaction to occur, no added acid necessary.
Mechanical leavening agent
- creaming - whisk
It is a single fat or oil or a combination of fats and oils, which tenderizes the product by preventing the cohesion of gluten strands during mixing.