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197 terms

AP2: Unit 7

STUDY
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LH.
Directly stimulates interstitial cells in males.
Testosterone.
Produced by interstitial cells.
GnRH.
Produced in the hypothalamus.
FSH.
Stimulates oogenesis directly on follicle cells.
Progesterone.
Produced during the second half of ovarian cycle.
Estrogen.
Follicular cells.
LH.
Anterior pituitary.
Testosterone.
Interstitial cells.
Progesterone.
Corpus luteum.
LH surge.
Causes ovulation.
Progesterone.
Promotes secretory phase of uterine cycle.
Estrogen.
Responsible for sex drive in females.
Testosterone.
Causes grown spurt at puberty.
Menopause.
Ovulation and menses cease.
Interstitial cells.
Production of testosterone.
Follicular cells.
Production of estrogen.
Sustentacular cells.
Deliver nutrients to spermatocytes.
Menarche.
First menstrual period.
Seminal vesicles.
Contributes fluid to semen.
Cryptorchidism.
Undescended testes.
Corpus cavernosum.
Dorsal erectile bodies.
Vasectomy.
Cut pathway of sperm movement.
Corpus spongiosum.
Surrounds urethra.
Seminferous tubules.
Produces sperm to semen.
Myometrium.
Smooth muscle of uterus.
Cervix.
Narrow neck or outlet of uterus.
Perimetrium.
Visceral peritoneum over uterus.
Fundus.
Rounded region anterior to the entrance of uterine tubes.
Endometrium.
Mucosal lining of uterine cavity.
Hymen.
Incomplete partition covering the vaginal orifice.
Corpus iuteum.
Produces progesterone.
Primordial follicle.
Some are turned on each month under FSH stimulation.
Mature follicle.
Contains a secondary ooctye prior to ovulation.
Secondary follicle.
This has many cell layers and an undeveloped antrum.
Primary follicle.
Contains a primary oocyte and two cell layers that make estrogen.
Cervix.
Site of pap smear.
Bulbourethral gland.
Secretes acid neutralizing mucous into the penile urethra prior to ejaculation.
Pituitary.
FSH production.
Ovary.
Estrogen and progesterone production.
Ampulla of uterine tube.
Site of fertilization.
Endometrium.
Site of implantation.
Metaphase I.
Tetrads align along the cell's equator.
Telophase II.
Four genetically unique haploid cells are formed.
Telophase I.
Two haploid daughter cells are formed.
Prophase I.
Crossing over.
Anaphase I.
Homologous chromosomes separate from one another.
Which of the following is mismatched?
Luteal phase/characterized by decreased progesterone levels.
The diploid chromosome number in humans is:
46.
Seminferous tubules.
Site of sperm production in the testes.
Epididymis.
Site of sperm storage.
Tunica albuginea.
Fibrous capsule of the testes.
Interstitial cells.
Make testosterone.
Papiniform venous plexus.
Cools arterial blood to keep the testes below core temperature.
Which of the following is not an effect of testosterone.
Decreases sperm production.
In response to warmth, the scrotum:
Increases its surface area.
The functional layer of the endometrium is shed in response to:
Decreased progesterone levels.
Which of the following is false regarding the female sexual response?
Testosterone is the hormone that is primarily responsible for female libido.
The ovaries are situated retroperitoneally next to the kidneys.
False.
The main component of semen is sperm.
False.
____ stimulates the anterior pituitary to release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
___ is a sexually transmitted disease that is associated with cervical cancer.
Genital warts.
The pH of the adult female vagina is normally:
Acidic.
Which of the following is considered a primary sex organ in males.
Testes.
The area of the sperm cell that contains many mitochondria is the:
Midpiece.
Choose the false statement about oogenesis.
In humans, the secondary oocyte must complete meiosis II before it can be fertilized.
________ acts upon the ________ to encourage the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH); anterior pituitary.
Fimbraie.
Finger-like projections that brush over the ovary.
Fallopian tubes.
Site of fertilization of the ovulated oocyte.
Uterus.
Receives, retains, and nourishes a fertilized ovum.
Ovaries.
House and form the female gametes.
Vagina.
Thin walled structure that connects the uterus to the body exterior.
Which of the following is true about meiosis?
Meiosis produces cells that have a haploid chromosome number.
Which of the following is not an effect of estrogen?
Promotes diuresis (water loss).
Conversion of haploid spermatids to spermatozoa is specifically called ___.
Spermiogenesis.
The ___ is shed during menstruation.
Stratum functionalis.
The ___ develop into the female duct system.
Paramesonephric ducts.
The ___ of the mammary glands are responsible for producing milk during lactation.
Alveoli.
Mother O and father O.
O.
Mother B and father AB.
A, B, or AB.
Mother AB and father O.
A or B.
Mother O and father A.
A or O.
Genome.
The set of all genes.
Homozygous.
Two identical alleles for a gene.
Genotype.
The actual genetic makeup.
Phenotype.
The expression of the genes in form (example: hair color).
Allele.
An alternative gene form.
Polygenic.
Height.
Sex-linked.
Hemophilia.
Dominant/recessive.
Tay-Sachs disease.
Multiple allele.
Blood type.
An ovum contains ___.
23 chromosomes.
A blastocyst is produced by ___.
Mitosis.
A sperm cell is produced by ___.
Meiosis.
A cell from a person with trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) contains ___.
Abnormal chromosome number.
A zygote contains ____.
46 chromosomes.
Huntington's, if one parent is heterozygous for the Huntington's gene.
50%.
Sickle-cell anemia, if one parent is heterozygous for the sickle-cell gene.
0%
Albinism, if both parents are heterozygous for the albino gene.
25%.
Incomplete dominance.
Heterozygote has a phenotype that is intermediate between the homozygous dominant and recessive phenotypes.
Polygenic inheritance.
Traits that depend on several different genes.
Sex-linked inheritance.
One form is Y-linked and the other is X-linked.
Multiple allele inheritance.
Blood types are an example of a trait expressed this way.
Dominant/recessive inheritance.
One allele can mask the other allele.
All of the following statements about the foramen ovale are true except:
It allows blood to pass directly from the right atrium into the left ventricle.
The hormone that induces labor and controls labor via a positive feedback mechanisms is:
Oxytocin.
Which of the following is a newborn's source of energy for the first few days?
Fat.
The process that transforms the embryo into a three layered stage is called:
Gastrulation.
Which sequence shows the correct order of the stages of labor?
Dilation, expulsion, placental.
The heart begins to beat in the developing offspring:
At 3-4 weeks.
The outermost embryonic membrane is the:
Chorion.
Which statement about maternal hormones during pregnancy is accurate?
Estrogen levels increase throughout gestation.
After fertilization, the zygote goes through a rapid period of cell divisions called:
Cleavage.
The Apgar score range that indicates a healthy baby is:
8-10.
Which structure below is formed from ectodermal tissues?
Brain.
What is the function of the hormone hCG?
It signals the corpus luteum to continue producing estrogen and progesterone to maintain the pregnancy.
Which of the following is NOT a common metabolic/physiological change that occurs in pregnant women?
Lower blood pressure.
The disc-shaped placenta is formed from the:
Chronic villi and the decidua basalis.
The process by which the three primary germ layers form is known as _______.
Gastrulation.
An implantation that takes place in a site other than the uterus is called:
Ectopic.
Implantation is usually completed after:
The blastocyst is entirely surrounded by endometrium.
The function of the ductus arteriosus is to:
Bypass the pulmonary circuit.
Which hormone produced by the placenta causes the mother's pubic symphysis to loosen and widen?
Relaxin. (Seriously.)
Which structure represents the remnants of the atrial fetal shunt?
Fossa ovalis.
Which of the following is NOT a function of the placenta?
Urine formation.
Prolactin causes:
Milk production by the breast tissue.
All of the following prevent polyspermy except:
A decrease in zonal inhibiting proteins.
The first major event of organogenesis is:
Neurulation.
Implantation of the blastocyst begins:
6-7 days after ovulation.
Sperm are known to bear ____________ that respond to chemical stimuli that help them locate the ova.
Question 26 answers
Olfactory receptors.
Which of the following is NOT from the same germ line as the others?
Brain.
Which factor below is NOT considered to be a teratogen?
Oxygen.
The only 100% effective method of birth control is ___.
Total abstinence.
Which of the following is NOT a function of trophoblast cells?
The inner layers of trophoblasts lose their plasmic membranes and invade the endometrium.
___ occurs when a woman has a deformed or male-like pelvis, resulting in prolonged and difficult labor; this condition can lead to fetal brain damage, ultimately causing cerebral palsy or epilepsy.
Dystocia.
The first major event in organogenesis is gastrulation.
False.
A weight gain of approximately 13kg/(~28lb) usually occurs during pregnancy.
True.
The process of implantation generally begins ___ and is usually completed by ___.
6-7 days after ovulation/12th day after ovulation.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels spike within the first two months of pregnancy and then sharply decline by four months.
True.
_____ and ____ are both hormones and powerful uterine muscle stimulants which cause contractions to become more frequent and more vigorous.
Oxytocin and prostaglandins.
Which of the following occurs eight weeks into pregnancy?
The head of the fetus is nearly as large as the body.
Coitus interruptus is among the most effective birth control methods.
False.
The ectoderm is the primary germ layer from which the digestive, respiratory, urogenital systems, and associated glands form.
False.
Fertilization.
Leads to the formation of the first cell of the new individual.
Gastruation.
Leads to the establishment of the three primary germ layers.
Capicitation.
Leads to enhancement of sperm motility and increasing membrane fragility to enable enzyme release from acrosomes.
Implantation.
Embedding of the blastocyst in the uterine wall.
Cleavage.
Leads to the development of a morula and then a blastocyst.
By the end of the third month of pregnancy, the placenta is usually fully functional as a nutritive, respiratory, excretory, and endocrine organ.
True.
In humans, the extraembryonic membrane that comprises the structural base for the umbilical cord is the ___.
Allantois.
___ refers to events that occur from the time of fertilization until the infant is born.
Pregnancy.
Which of the following occurs 17-20 weeks into pregnancy during the fetal period?
Quickening occurs.
An Apgar score of 8-10 indicates a healthy baby.
True.
For successful fertilization to occur, coitus mus occur no more than ___ and no later than ___.
2 days before ovulation/24 hours after.
Amniocentesis and chronic villus sampling are both examples of ___.
Fetal testing.
Use the following information to solve the problem using a Punnett square.

Assume that the dominant "B" allele encodes brown eyes and the recessive "b" allele encodes blue eyes.

An individual with the genotype bb has children with an individual of the genotype Bb. What is the percent chance that they would have children with blue eyes?
50%.
Codominant alleles are present in:
Multiple allele inheritance.
An organism with one pair of homologous chromosomes could produce ___ different gametes on the basis of independent assortment alone.
2.
The X and Y sex chromosomes are homologous.
False.
A person's genetic makeup is referred to as his/her genotype.
True facts.
The larger the number of offspring, the greater the likelihood that the ratios predicted by a Punnett square will conform to the predicted values.
True.
Red-green color blindness exhibits ___ inheritance.
Sex-linked.
How many chromosomes are in a normal haploid human cell?
23.
Linked genes:
Are on the same chromosome.
An allele that is able to mask the expression of its partner allele is said to be ___.
Dominant.
Many genetic disorders, such as albinism, cystic fibrosis, and Tay-Sachs disease, are inherited as simple recessive traits.
True.
Which of the following is NOT one of the three basic levels of gene controls?
Mutations.
When the two alleles controlling a trait are different, the individual is ___ for the trait.
Heterozygous.
Genes that are located on the same chromosome are said to be:
Linked.
Heterozygous individuals that can pass on recessive, abnormal conditions are are referred to as:
Carriers.
In females, one of the X chromosomes is inactivated by:
Epigenetic markers.
If the allele for brown hair was represented as B, this would mean that ___.
Brown hair was a dominant trait.
A change in the genetic structure of a gene is called:
A mutation.
If a male inherits a sex-linked gene for color blindness:
It will always be expressed.
Traits that display a continuous phenotypic variation are usually determined by this form of inheritance.
Polygenic inheritance.
A karyotype is a complete:
Diploid complement display of homologous chromosome pairs.
In the human blood type AB, the alleles are:
Codominant.
Heterozygous parents who have had one child with a recessive disease will have a ___ chance of having their second child being born with the same recessive disease.
25%.
The form of inheritance in which the heterozygous state is expressed as an intermediate is:
Incomplete dominance.
What is the probability of having a child with a recessive trait if both parents are heterozygous for the trait.
25%.
Humans have ___ pairs of chromosomes.
23.
A type of treatment useful in correcting single-gene disorders is:
Gene therapy.
Which process listed below separates linked genes during meiosis?
Chiasma or crossing over.
Any two matched genes that are ___ are called alleles.
At the same locus on homologous chromosomes.
The most common form of fetal testing is:
Amniocentesis.
The appearance of freckles is considered:
A phenotype.
The 46 chromosomes of a zygote come from ___.
The mother and father.
Males tend to inherit more sex-linked conditions because:
There is no corresponding allele on their Y chromosomes.
The expression of genes is called the:
Phenotype.
What type of allele will be expressed if both dominant and recessive alleles are present for a given trait?
Dominant.
Alternative forms of genes are called:
Alleles.
A person without a Y chromosome will:
Always show female characteristics.
The number of different gametes that can be produced in a male, based on independent assortment alone, equals _____.
2^23.
Which of the following disorders is NOT inherited as simple recessive traits?
Down syndrome.
Extrachromosomal inheritance involves genes passed on by the mother's:
Mitochondria.
A person who inherits the A and the O blood type alleles will possess which blood type?
A.
Most human traits are determined by:
Multiple alleles.
A phenocopy occurs when:
An individual develops a phenotype that is similar to a condition caused by mutant genes but is actually caused by environmental factors and does not have a genetic basis.