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deoxyribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid that carries information about the production of particular proteins in the sequence of its nucleotide bases
one of the nitrogen containing side-chain molecules attaches to a sugar molecule in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA and RNA
DNA base pairs I
two nucleotides on complementary strands of DNA that form a pair linked by H bonds; the information in a molecule of DNA or RNA is determined by its sequence of bases
characteristic of double-stranded DNA that the base on one strand always has the same pairing partner on the other strand
"double helix" twisted ladder: alternating sugar-phosphate groups as backbone and base pairs are rungs
chromosomes "color body"
a linear or circular strand of DNA on which are found specific sequences of base pairs
adenine is the complementary base to thymine; guanine is the complementary base to cytosine
clone "klon" twig
a genetically identical DNA fragment, cell or organism produced by a single cell or organism
chromosomal abberation "aberrare" to wander LT
deletion of section of DNA, moving of a gene from one part of a chromosome to another part, duplication of a gene: change in overall organization of the genes
three-base sequences in mRNA that link with the complementary tRNA molecules that are attached to amino acids
a short sequence of radioactive tagged single-stranded DNA that contains part of the sequence of the gene of interest, used to locate that gene in a gene library; the probe binds to the complementary base pair
the genes that an organism carries for a particular trait; collectively an organism's genetic composition
process of joining two complementary strands of DNA from different sources; occurs when a DNA probe is used to match with a complementary sequence in a gene library
messenger RNA "mRNA"
ribonucleic acid that reads the sequence for a gene in DNA then moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during transription
an alternation in the base-pair sequence of an individual's DNA: spontaneous or from exposure to a mutagen
phylogenetic tree "phulon + genus" race, tribe, class + origin, family
a grouping of organism in a hierarchical system that reflects the evolutionary history and relatedness of the organisms
a mutation in which one base pair is replaced with another base pair, or a base pair is inserted or deleted
polymerase chain reaction PCR
laboratory technique in which a DNA fragment can multiply repeatedly by heating and putting separated strands into solution with nucleotides and then cooling
part of DNA molecule that indicates where the sequence of base pairs that make up a gene begin
construction of a protein from its constituent amino acids, by the processes of transcription and translation
recombinant DNA technology
depends on the combination of two or more sources of DNA into a product ex transgenic E.coli that has human DNA sequence that encodes for insulin production
enzymes that recognize and bind to different specific sequences of 4-8 bases in DNA and cut the DNA at that point
two structural parts of the ribosome, which function together to translate mRNA to build a chain of amino acids that will make a protein
transfer RNA (tRNA)
RNA molecules in the cytoplasm that link specific triplet base sequences on mRNA to specific amino acids (always start at AUG for the methionine amino acid)
variable number of tandem repeats VNTR
regions of repeating sequences of bases in DNA that vary in the number of times the sequence repeats from individual to individual and in a given individual between homologues; ID the number of repeats in multiple regions tells people apart
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