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47 terms

Chapter 5: DNA, Gene Expression, Biotechnology

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DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid that carries information about the production of particular proteins in the sequence of its nucleotide bases
nucleotide
a sugar, a phosphate group (4 oxygen with 1 phosphorus), and a nitrogen-containing base
base
one of the nitrogen containing side-chain molecules attaches to a sugar molecule in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA and RNA
DNA base pairs I
two nucleotides on complementary strands of DNA that form a pair linked by H bonds; the information in a molecule of DNA or RNA is determined by its sequence of bases
complementarity
characteristic of double-stranded DNA that the base on one strand always has the same pairing partner on the other strand
nucleic acid
a macromolecule that stores information
DNA structure
"double helix" twisted ladder: alternating sugar-phosphate groups as backbone and base pairs are rungs
genome
the full set of DNA present in an individual
prokaryotic DNA
circular pieces of DNA
eukaryotic DNA
linear strands of DNA inside nucleus
chromosomes "color body"
a linear or circular strand of DNA on which are found specific sequences of base pairs
human genome
two copies of each of 23 unique chromosomes, one from the mother, one from the father
complementary base
adenine is the complementary base to thymine; guanine is the complementary base to cytosine
code
base sequence of a gene
cloning
production of genetically identical cells, organisms, or DNA molecules
clone "klon" twig
a genetically identical DNA fragment, cell or organism produced by a single cell or organism
clone library/gene library
a collection of cloned DNA fragments
alleles "allos" other
alternative versions of a gene
biotechnology
modification of organisms, cells, and their molecules for practical benefits
chromosomal abberation "aberrare" to wander LT
deletion of section of DNA, moving of a gene from one part of a chromosome to another part, duplication of a gene: change in overall organization of the genes
codons
three-base sequences in mRNA that link with the complementary tRNA molecules that are attached to amino acids
DNA probe
a short sequence of radioactive tagged single-stranded DNA that contains part of the sequence of the gene of interest, used to locate that gene in a gene library; the probe binds to the complementary base pair
genotype
the genes that an organism carries for a particular trait; collectively an organism's genetic composition
hybridization
process of joining two complementary strands of DNA from different sources; occurs when a DNA probe is used to match with a complementary sequence in a gene library
intron
non coding region of DNA
messenger RNA "mRNA"
ribonucleic acid that reads the sequence for a gene in DNA then moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during transription
mutation
an alternation in the base-pair sequence of an individual's DNA: spontaneous or from exposure to a mutagen
nucleic acid
four types of biological macromolecules, nucleic acids are DNA and RNA
phenotype
manifested structure, function, and behaviors of the genotype of an organism
phylogenetic tree "phulon + genus" race, tribe, class + origin, family
a grouping of organism in a hierarchical system that reflects the evolutionary history and relatedness of the organisms
plasmid
a circular DNA molecule found outside the main chromosome in bacteria
point mutation
a mutation in which one base pair is replaced with another base pair, or a base pair is inserted or deleted
polymerase chain reaction PCR
laboratory technique in which a DNA fragment can multiply repeatedly by heating and putting separated strands into solution with nucleotides and then cooling
promoter site
part of DNA molecule that indicates where the sequence of base pairs that make up a gene begin
protein synthesis
construction of a protein from its constituent amino acids, by the processes of transcription and translation
recombinant DNA technology
depends on the combination of two or more sources of DNA into a product ex transgenic E.coli that has human DNA sequence that encodes for insulin production
restriction enzymes
enzymes that recognize and bind to different specific sequences of 4-8 bases in DNA and cut the DNA at that point
ribosomal subunit
two structural parts of the ribosome, which function together to translate mRNA to build a chain of amino acids that will make a protein
stem cell
undifferentiated cells that have the ability to develop into any type of cell in the body
transcription
process by which a gene's base sequence is copied to mRNA
translation
process by which mRNA directs production of protein
trait
any characteristic or an organism
transfer RNA (tRNA)
RNA molecules in the cytoplasm that link specific triplet base sequences on mRNA to specific amino acids (always start at AUG for the methionine amino acid)
transgenic organism
organism that contains DNA from another species
variable number of tandem repeats VNTR
regions of repeating sequences of bases in DNA that vary in the number of times the sequence repeats from individual to individual and in a given individual between homologues; ID the number of repeats in multiple regions tells people apart
AUG
start sequence, match with methionine
gel electrophoresis
use to make visual of VNTR in gel with electric charge