US HISTORY II CH. 19 VOCAB

STUDY
PLAY
Four Reasons for War
Nationalism
Imperialism
Militarism
Systems of Alliances
Nationalism
A devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation
Imperialism
The policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories
Militarism
Development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy
central powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
Allies
Britain, France, Russia, USA, Italy, Japan
The Balkans
a region in Southeast Europe that Russia and Austria-Hungary tried to dominate; "Powder Keg of Europe" because like a powder keg, had people with so much tension, would explode with a conflict
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, whose assassination triggered the war
Result of Assassination:
Domino effect of alliances; Germany has to support Austria-Hungary; Germany declares war on Russia; France has to jump in to defend ally Russia; Britain jumps in to help France and because Germany invades Belgium (a British ally); ONE BY ONE NATIONS ALL OVER EUROPE ENTER THE FIGHT
Trench Warfare
a type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other
No Man's Land
A strip of land beween the trenches of opposing armies along the Western Front during WW1
three kinds of trenches
front line, support, and reserve
United States enters war against Central Powers for 2 REASONS:
- ensure allied payment of debts to the US
- prevent Germans from threatening US shipping
U-boats (unterseeboots)
submarines; germany unrestricted submarine warfare
Lusitania
British liner torpedoed by a German submarine in May 1915; killed 12 americans
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Germany's Policy of sinking ships with their U-boats, enemy or neutral, that carry war material
Zimmerman Note
Message proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico
Selective Service Act
act passed by Congress in 1917 authorizing a draft of men for military service
prefabrication
The pre-construction of components as a part of a whole; US converted comercial and private ships into war ships
Convoy System
A heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups
Americans offered 2 advantages for allies when they joined war in 1917:
- more numbers/supplies
-fresh enthusiasm
Belleau Wood
a World War I battle in northwestern France where the Allies defeated the Germans in 1918; famed battle where US Marine Corp got its reputation
Second Battle of the Marne
battle that was the turning point of WWI; tide turned for central powers
Armistice Day
11am, November 11, 1918 (11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918)
Armistice
An agreement to stop fighting; truce
Fourteen Points
Woodrow Wilson's post WWI plan for peace, most of which was rejected by European leaders following the war.
Goals of Fourteen Points:
- prevent another war
- boundary changes
- creation of League of Nations
League of Nations
An international organization to address diplomatic crisis and provide a forum for nations to address grievances
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty that ended WWI; particularly known for its harsh reparations towards the Germans.
Reparations
Payment for war damages
The Treaty of Versailles did these said/did these:
- Created 9 new states
- Carved five areas out of Ottoman Empire and gave them to France and Great Britain as temporary colonies
- Germany is barred from maintaining an army
- Germany gives Alsace-Lorraine back to France
- Germany had to pay reparations (war damages) to The Allies
war-guilt clause
forced Germany to admit sole responsibility for starting WWI
Weakness with the Treaty of Versailles
Harsh treatment of Germany will weaken the ability of the Treaty to provide lasting peace in Europe; Even Americans believed that the treaty was too harsh
Isolationism
A policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations
Legacy of WW1
Called "the war to end all wars"
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