33 terms

Middle Ages

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When did the Middle Ages happen?
Lasts roughly 1000 years, 500-1500
What is the Middle Ages?
Name given to the time period after the gradual decline of the Roman Empire.
Other names??
Sometimes called The Dark Ages or medieval period.
Describe the Middle Ages.
Often seen as a very bleak and dangerous period
What caused the Middle Ages to happen?
Fall of the Roman Empire & Invasions
Effects of the Middle Ages
Germanic kingdoms, rise of the feudal system, Christian church grows, power of the Pope, new languages, new countries appear, people move to countryside (rural), and no emphasis on learning.
What group of people did Clovis, Charles Martel, & Charlemagne come from?
Franks (France)
Clovis
First Frank King to unite all Frankish tribes under one authority. Also considered responsible for spread of Christianity in Frankish Kingdom.
Charles Martel
He became Mayor of Palace. He is known for re-uniting the Frankish kingdoms. His biggest achievement was perhaps stalling the Islamic invasion of France.
Charlemagne
Also known as Charles the Great or Charles I, was one of the great leaders of the Middle Ages. He was King of the Franks and later became the Holy Roman Emperor. He set up schools in monasteries throughout Europe. He had the laws written down and recorded and instituted many economic reforms.
William the Conqueror
Introduced the Feudal System as a way of ensuring loyalty. His grip on power was ensured by giving away lands and passing on responsibility to his subjects.
Feudal System
Feudalism
a social system that existed in Europe during the Middle Ages in which people worked and fought for nobles who gave them protection and the use of land in return.
Fief
land grants
Manor
an agricultural estate. It was usually comprised of agricultural land, a village where peasants worked that land, and a manor house where the lord who owned or controlled the estate lived.
Chivalry
code of behavior for Knights
Clergy
a group ordained to perform pastoral functions in a Christian church
Sacrament
Sacred rites that Christians believed brought them blessings from God
3 ways the church acquired power/wealth
1. land was given in the form of gifts from monarchs & lords
2. Land was taken by force
3. Church collected a tax or tithe
Crusade Goal
A holy war involving the journey of thousands of Europeans to reclaim the holy land of Jerusalem in the name of Christianity
When were the Crusades?
Starts in 1093 and lasts for nearly 300 years
Social reasons people went on crusades
Opportunity to get knights to stop fighting each other and fight a new foe. These knights threatened peace in Europe.
Economic reasons people went on crusades
The Holy Lands of Jerusalem were generally wealthier than Europe and many wanted to get their share of that wealth. Younger sons who did not stand to inherit father's property were
looking for wealth and adventure. Merchants supplied loans to finance the journey.
Political reasons people went on crusades
A chance for the pope to gain territory instead of Byzantine rival.
Spiritual reasons people went on crusades
Fight/die on Crusade = ticket to heaven (Christian contradiction).
Participates of the crusades
Christians & Muslims
Effects of the Crusades
1. Example of Church power
2. Trade expanded between Europe and Southwest Asia
3. Thousands of knights and other participants lost their lives
4. Those who survived brought back culture to Europe
5. Persecution of Jews; thousands were slaughtered because they were infidels
6. Failure of later crusades lessened the power of the pope
7. The Crusades weakened the power of the feudal nobility (Knights were dead)
8. Began a legacy of bitterness and hatred of Christians for the Muslims and vice versa
Results of the Crusades
The Crusades were a violation of "Thou Shalt Not Kill." It was also an example of an abuse of church power. The effects of the Crusades are still felt
through that region of the world today.
Magna Carta
Document that nobles forced King John to sign that protected the rights of the people and limited the kings power
Joan of Arc
French girl who helped the French in the 100 year war
Fleas & Rats
Helped spread the plague
Bubonic Plague
Disease that killed over 40 million people in Europe during the Middle Ages
100 year War
War between England & France over who becomes the next king of France - French win the war