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Biology 2 : Mid-Term Study Guide
Terms in this set (44)
The structure of the body.
OR (To cut apart).
Define Gross Anatomy.
Parts of the body we can use.
Define Microscopic Anatomy.
You need a microscope to see it.
Define Surface Anatomy.
Anatomy by feeling.
Define Regional Anatomy.
Broken down by region.
Define Systematic Anatomy.
Broken down by organ systems.
Group of tissue.
Group of cells.
A state of equilibrium in the body.
Know the 11 Organ Systems of the Body:
WILL HAVE PICTURE, DETERMINE ORGAN SYSTEM BY PICTURE.
- 11 PICS OF PEOPLE WITH THESE SYSTEMS.
The Integumentary System
: skin, hair, etc.
: Bones, cartilage, etc.
: Muscles, Tendons, etc.
: Brain, Spinal Cord, and nerves.
: Pituitary Gland, thyroid glands.
: Heart, Veins, Arteries.
: Lymph nodes, vessels, spleen.
: stomach, liver, intestines.
: lungs, trachea.
: Kidneys, bladder.
: ovaries, testes.
4 Types of Tissue in the body:
: makes up the brain, system, spinal cord, the eye, etc.
: makes up the muscles on your skeleton, the heart and the muscles which operate your organs.
: makes up bone, cartilage, and so forth.
: makes up the lining of many organs, as well as glands.
4 Steps to Mitosis and what happens in each:
JUST KNOW PMAT. DON'T NEED TO KNOW FUNCTION.
: chromosomes become visible as chromatids and nuclear envelope disappears.
: chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers.
: chromosomes move away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle.
: chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed.
How are epithelial tissues classified?
By the number of layers, and shape of cells that make up layers.
What are the two types of glands?
3 Ways Exocrine Glands secrete chemicals and how:
: secretes without losing cellular material (sweat glands).
: glands that have cytoplasm in their secretions (mammary glands).
: secretions are made up of disintegrated cells (acne, eye-crust).
3 types of cartilage and give examples:
: caps of bones, bridge of nose, rib cage.
: found in joint between each vertebra.
: ears, tip of nose.
What is the function of the skin?
To provide protection from the sun, thermal stress, and infection.
What two layers is the skin made of?
Describe the different degrees of burns...
1st Degree Burn
- The epidermis cells are killed.
- Causes redness of the skin.
- The least damaging or painful.
2nd Degree Burn
- Epidermis is completely destroyed.
- Hair follicle helps replenish epithelial cells.
- Redness and blistering.
3rd Degree Burn
- Completely destroys both epidermis and dermis.
- Skin will be black and charred.
- Only repair is skin graft.
Why are the needles injected in the Subcuta neous tissue?
The blood vessels run through this layer and the needles can go straight to the bloodstream.
Name the layers of the epidermis and describe:
- deepest layer; one cell thick.
- cells constantly going through mitosis.
- all the cells from this layer, reproduce and then are pushed up into>>>
- several layers thick.
- cells undergo mitosis in this layer.
- melanocytes are present (makes melanin) (brown pigment gives skin its color)>>>
- third layer of skin.
- skin cells begin killing themselves by over producing keratin.
- keratin is an important protein made by these cells for water proofing.
- without keratin, water would soak into the skin when we bathe, and would leak out of skin when we are dry.
- it keeps water out but also in the body.
What is melanin?
Melanocytes present in the stratum spinous layer of the skin.
This gives skin its color.
What are the two sections of the hair?
Where would you find hard keratin?
Hard Keratin: More sulfur, found in hair.
Soft Keratin: Less sulfur, found in skin.
Why do different hairs on your body grow at different rates?
Different hairs have:
2.) Growth stages.
3.) Resting stages.
What are the 4 functions of the skeletal system?
Bones are classified into 5 basic categories. What are they? Give examples of each.
1.) Long bones: Humerus
2.) Short bones: Carpals
3.) Flat bones: Frontal (skull)
4.) Sesamoid bones: Patella
5.) Irregular bones: Vertebrae
How many bones in an average adult?
How many bones are in the hands and feet?
106 bones, 27 in each hand, 26 in each foot, x2 to get 106.
Attaches muscle to bone.
The point at which a muscle's tendon attaches to the more stationary bone.
The point at which a muscle's tendon the moveable bone.
The largest part of the muscle, which actually contains the muscle cells.
How many muscles in the average adult?
How are muscles named?
5.) Origin and insertion.
6.) Number of origins on the muscles.
What makes up the lower respiratory tract and the upper respiratory tract?
Nasal cavity, larynx, pharynx.
What is the path of air?
1.) Nose / Mouth
8.) Alveoli Ducts
What are the 8 parts of the Alimentary canal?
5.) Small intestine.
6.) Large intestine.
What are the 6 accessory organs?
3.) Salivary glands.
What are the functions of the small intestines?
a.) Mix and propel chyme.
b.) Digest food.
c.) Absorb nutrients.
What are the three parts of the large intestine?
What are the fingerlike structures called that cover the surface of the intestinal tract that pull in nutrients into the blood stream?
What is the purpose of the bacteria in the intestines? How many?
What gives feces its brown color?
How do doctors test for this in newborns?
Bilirubin (chemical produced in the liver.)
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