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organizational innovation

the successful implementation of creative ideas in organizations


the production of novel and useful ideas

organizational change

a difference in the form, quality, or condition of an organization over time

s curve innovation

a pattern of technological innovation characterized by slow initial progress, then rapid progress, and then slow progress

innovation streams

patterns of innovation over time that can create sustainable competitive advantage

technological discontinuity

a scientific advance or breakthrough

discontinuous change

the phase of a technology cycle characterized by technological competition and design substitution

technological substitution

the purchase of new technologies to replace older ones

design competition

competition between new and old technologies to establish a new technological standard or dominant design

technological lockout

when a new dominant design prevents a company from competitively selling its products or makes it difficult to do so

incremental change

the phase of a technology cycle in which companies innovate by lowering costs and improving the functioning and performance of the dominant technological design

creative work environments

workplace cultures in which workers perceive that new ideas are welcomed, valued, and encouraged.


a psychological state of effortlessness in which you become completely absorbed in what you're doing and time seems to pass quickly

experiential approach to innovation

an approach to innovation that assumes a highly uncertain environment and uses intuition, flexible options, and hands on experience to reduce uncertainty and accelerate learning and understanding

design iteration

a cycle of repetition in which a company tests a prototype of a new product or service, improves on that design, and then builds and tests the improved prototype

product prototype

a full scale working model that is being tested for design, function, and reliability


the systematic comparison of different product designs or design iterations


formal project review points used to assess progress and performance

multifunctional teams

work teams composed of people from different departments

compression approach to innovation

an approach to innovation that assumes that incremental innovation can be planned using a series of steps and that compressing those steps can speed up innovation

generational change

change based on incremental improvements to a dominant technological design such that the improved technology is fully backward compatible with the older technology

organizational decline

a large decrease in organizational performance that occurs when companies don't anticipate, recognize, neutralize, or adapt to the internal or external pressures that threaten their survival

change forces

forces that produce differences in the form, quality, or condition of an organization over time

resistance forces

forces that support the existing state of conditions in organizations

resistance to change

opposition to change resulting from self interest, misunderstanding and distrust, and a general intolerance for change


getting the people affected by a change to believe that change is needed

change intervention

the process used to get workers and managers to change their behavior and work processes


supporting and reinforcing new changes so that they stick


using formal power and authority to force others to change

results driven change

change created quickly by focusing on the measurement and improvement of results

general electric workout

a three day meeting in which managers and employees from different levels and parts of an organization quickly generate and act on solutions to specific business problems

organizational development

a philosophy and collection of planned change interventions designed to improve an organizations long term health and performance

change agent

the person formally in charge of guiding a change effort

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