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57 terms

Chapter 47 Mobility and Immobility

Nursing Fundamentals Potter and Perry 8th edition
STUDY
PLAY
Mobility
Self- defense, ability to perform ADLs, participate in recreational activities (also expression of emotions or satisfaction of basic needs with nonverbal gestures.
Body mechanics
coordinated efforts of musculoskeletal and nervous systems such as lifting tech. used in nursing, if incorrectly used it can cause injury.
Body alignment and posture
refers to positioning of the joints, tendon, ligament and muscles while standing, sitting, lying (individuals center of gravity is stable).
Friction
is a force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement, greater the surface area of the object that is being moved, greater the friction.
Shear
force exerted against the skin while the skin remain stationary and bony structures move.
Pathological fracture
Fractures caused by weakened bone tissue
joints
connection between bone and bone
ligaments
connects bone with cartilage
tendons
connects bone with muscles
cartilage
nonvascular
unossified
not hardened as a bone (i.e. cartilage0
concentric tension
helps control speed and direction of the movement
isotonic contraction
of or involving muscular contraction in which tension is constant while length changes, like in swimming, rock climbing, cycling
isometric contraction
you simply hold the position, you don't put your muscle through any range of motion like holding a push up position
leverage
force that is applied to one end of the bone to lift an object
posture
position of the body in relation to the surrounding space, lower extremities, trunk, neck, and back are related to posture
muscle tone
normal state of the muscle tension, body achieve muscle tension by alternation contraction and relaxation w/o active movement
CVA
cerebrovascular accident or brain attack from ischemia
muscle atrophy
loss of muscle tone or joint stiffness(especially through lack of use)
immobility
remaining in place, not being able to move freely
bed rest
restricts pt. to bed for therapeutic reasons
disuse atrophy
tendency of cells and tissue to decrease in size and function in response to prolong inactivity like due to lack of use like in bed rest, trauma, casting, local nerve damage to motor division
BMR
the rate at which heat is produced by an individual in a resting state (Basal metabolic rate)
Neg. nitrogen balance
body excrete more nitrogen than it ingest due to immobolity
catabolism
breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energy (break down)
anabolism
synthesis of more complex substances from simpler ones (build up)
hypostatic pneumonia
respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants (inflamed lungs due to stasis or pooling of secretions)
orthostatic hypotension
abnormally low blood pressure
(increase in HR and decrease in SBP or DBP when pt. changes position)
thrombus
a blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin (damage to blood vessel/wall, alteration in blood flow/ viscous and or alteration in blood clotting factors are three factors that contribute to it.
disuse osteoporosis
pt. at increase risk of fractures. immobilization results in bone resorption, the bone tissue is less dense disuse osteoporosis results.
joint contracture
abnormal and/or permanent fixation of the joint. flexor muscle are responsible for it.
foot drop
foot is permanently fixed in planter flexion position, ambulation becomes difficult due to the decrease in pt.s ability to dorsiflexion
urinary stasis
urine formed by the kidney needs to enter the bladder unaided by gravity but due to immobility the peristaltic contractions of the ureters are insufficient to overcome the gravity, the renal pelvis fills before urine enters the ureters.
renal calculi
calcium stones in renal pelvis
gait
particular manner or style of walking- helps you assess the pt balance, posture, safety and ability to walk w/o assistance. involves neuro, muscular and skeletal systems coordination
activity tolerance
type and amount of exercise a pt. can perform
BUN
blood urea nitrogen- lab values that help us determine metabolic function
anthropometric measurements
measurements to evaluate muscle atrophy- measured by using pt. ht. et. and skinfold thickness
DVT
deep vein thrombosis
SCD
sequential compression devices worn by pt.
embolus
an abnormal particle (e.g. an air bubble or part of a clot) circulating in the blood
ED
emergency dept.
WOCN
wound, ostomy and continence nurse society
AHRQ
agency of healthcare and research and quality
PT
physical therapy
CPT
chest physiotherapy: percussion and positioning the pt. to preventing pneumonia
IPC
intermittent pneumatic compression sticking made of fabric or plastic that are wrapped around the leg and secured with velcro
ankle pumps/ calf pumps
alternating planter and dorsiflexion
anti embolic exercise
alternately extending and flexing the knee (hourly)
trochanter roll
bath blanket folded in lengthwise and placed from great trochanter of the femur, prevents external rotation of the hips when pt. is in supine position
traprez bar
triangular device that hang down from overhead, helps pt. pull themselves up
IADLs
instrumental ADLs, activity such as shopping, preparing meds, banking and taking meds
sims position
semi prone
log roll
moving pt. (w/ spinal injury) as one unit
NAP/ UAP
nursing assistive personal / unlicensed assistive personal
hemiparesis
one sided weakness
hemiplegia
one sided paralysis