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Industrial Revolution Study Guide Answers
Terms in this set (34)
refers to the greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England in the middle 1700s.
-spread from England to Continental Europe and North America
wealthy landowners took over land that village farmers worked on.
The large landowners dramatically improved farming methods. These innovations amounted to an agricultural revolution.
The increase in the landowners landholdings enabled them to cultivate larger fields
one of the best developments by the scientific farmers
less soil exhaustion
the development of industries for the machine production of goods.
factors of production
the resources, including land labor & capital (money), that are needed to produce goods & services
large buildings where wealthy textile merchants set up the machines in
a person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business.
how did changes in farming during the 1700s trigger the industrial revolution?
the process prior to the 1700's: peasant farmers, majority of family members worked on farm
1700's: wealthy landowners came in and bought land from peasant farmers and putting all small pieces of land into one big piece of land.
results of enclosures:
^^^this makes the peasant farmers
-move to cities, looking for work, go work in factories
-work for wealthy landowners who bought land from them (tenant farmers)
-asking for advancements in agricultural advancements (farming methods)
^^^they want to find a way to maximize their profits. they do this by (agricultural revolution)
-improve crop rotation system from middle ages
-improved breeding practices (selective breeding)
increase in food supplies leads to increase in quality of life, increase in pop, and living conditions.
this lead to a demand for food & other supplies is the agricultural revolution.
why was england the right time & place for the industrial revolution to begin?
***large pop. of workers
***extensive natural resources
• water power and coal to fuel the new machines
• iron ore to construct machines, tools, and buildings
• rivers for inland transportation
• harbors from which merchant ships set sail
expanding economy- this happens because they are producing more food- so they make a profit by shipping out goods to other countries (overseas trade)
***highly developed banking system
:gives entrepreneurs loans
:they are not participating in wars on their soil.
gov. passed laws to help encourage & protect business ventures.
:gov works together with banks
england had land, labor, money (factors)
describe the key inventions and improvements that evolved during the industrial revolution
-john kay: doubled the work a weaver could do in a day. (flying shuttle) ***man powered machinery
james hargreaves: allowed one spinner to work eight threads at a time. (spinning jenny)***man powered machinery
richard arkwright: used the waterpower from rapid streams to drive spinning wheels (water frame) **water powered
samuel crompton: made thread that was stronger, finer, and more consistent than earlier spinning machines (spinning mule) **water powered
edmund cartwright: sped up weaving after its invention in 1787 (power loom) **water powered
how did transportation impact british industry?
prior to industrialization, transportation consisted of boats or horse draw and wagon.
all of these resources are being demanded faster to meet the demand of transportation methods.
-james watt improved steam powered engines
demand for coal comes about
-rivers are now navigable because steam engines can take you. water is also good because england is in similar latitudes of america.
-road systems start to develop better.
-railroad system develops
:industrial growth increase
:hundreds new jobs being created
:increase in mining operations
:increase in fishing
city building and the movement of people to cities
growth of factory systems makes urbanization occur
a social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople, and wealthy farmers
what challenges existed in industrialized cities?
as they expand,
-lack of sanitary codes
-police protection for the people who poured in from the countryside to seek jobs
workers lived in dark, dirty shelters
sickness was widespread.
explain both the positive and negative effects on society that the industrial revolution had
-creates jobs for workers
-overall economy was strengthened- any who went through industrialization
-quality of life eventually improved
-could earn higher wages in factories as time progresses
-growth of rural cities (both)
-new technological improvements
-provides hope of improvement in people's lives
-cheaper mass produced clothing
-goods are mass produced and people can afford
-quality of life starts bad
-air & water pollution
-unhealthy working conditions
-leads to rising class tensions
-growth of rural cities (both)
-poor living conditions
-sanitary problems- lacked housing education, no drains in streets
-sickness was widespread
-84 hour work week
-machine related injuries
-dangerous in coal mines
explain how the industrial revolution gave birth to the middle class for england
the middle class included factory workers and merchants which caused those people to make bank which resulted in them being higher in social status.
how did the industrial revolution impact city workers and children?
-saw little improvement in their living and working conditions
-watched themselves be replaced by machines
Luddites: group who smashed machines and factories. rioted because of poor living and working conditions
-Children as young as six joined their parents in the factories
-To keep the children awake, mill supervisors beat them.
-dangerous machinery injured many children
:certain rights of ownership
to raise money, entrepreneur sold shares of stock
is a business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its
claim ownership rights by investing chunk of money into this corporation
all make profit if business makes profit, but also all lose some if business failed. you would lose the amount that you invested.
people do this because they don't want to lose everything if they lose their business.
Corporations were able to raise the large amounts of capital needed to invest in industrial equipment.
how did the industrial revolution spread to continental europe? what impact did the industrial revolution have on this region?
why doesn't it start at the same time in the 1700's that it did in england? why did it start later?
doesn't start the same because the french revolution and napoleonic era golfed most of continental europe so people weren't really concerned on developing their economy. industrialization is not their main goal at the time, it is too new for people to really understand how effective industrialization actually is. spreads after napoleonic era ends.
great britain had all factors of production/industrialization to spur in their country.
britain keeps the revolution from spreading by not allowing their joy and economic improvements to spread beyond england because they were selfish.
people smuggled design plans out by memorization or actually smuggled. they brought that to other countries.
england is no longer capable of hiding/keeping inventions.
other european countries were not industrializing because of the
-social structure. society as a whole was unwilling to accept changed of industrialization in their countries because they see growth of middle class, and wealthy aristocrats. they don't want to be in the same situation of other countries.
-the geography because they can't go around mountains. don't have technology to create ways to make way around them.
(belgium had same sort of ideal factors of production that made them industrialize in the same manner of england)
what helps to explain the rise of global inequality during the industrial revolution?
emerges because industrialized countries who have embraced these changes and those who refuse to or haven't embraced these changes are now second class countries compared to ones who have embraced the changes.
-some choose to industrialize, some choose not to
-shifted the world balance of power
-increased competition between industrialized nations
-increased poverty in less-developed nations.
To keep factories running and workers fed, industrialized countries required a steady supply of raw materials from less-developed lands. In turn, industrialized countries viewed poor countries as markets for their manufactured products.
Soon other European countries, the United
States, Russia, and Japan followed Britain's lead, seizing colonies for their economic
4. laissez faire
refers to the ECONOMIC POLICY of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference.
capitalism & unregulated capitalism, regulated capitalism
an ECONOMIC SYSTEM in which the factors of
production are owned by private citizens and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit.
regulated capitalism: ^same as that but there are gov. regulations. there are checks to ensure that monopoly doesn't occur. for example, they can say how many hours children work.
unregulated: capitalism w no gov. regulations-businesses can do what they want. monopolies occur because of this.
Utilitarians also pushed for reforms in the legal and prison systems and in education
new economic system where the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
the gov. plays a big role in managing on behalf of the public. they will own large areas of land where businesses are so they can profit. emerges in response to people saying that we should let the economy does what it wants.
a form of complete socialism in which the means of production—all land, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses—would be owned exclusively by the people.
everyone's needs are being met. everyone does their part in society to make sure everyone is being cared for. it would be a classless society where EVERYONE would be equal.
basically socialism on steroids- purest form of complete socialism.
*Marx created it (german journalist)
voluntary labor associations where workers joined together to press for reforms
For years, the British government denied
workers the right to form unions. The government saw unions as a threat to social order and stability. Indeed, the Combination Acts of 1799 and 1800 outlawed unions and strikes. Ignoring the threat of jail or job loss, factory workers joined unions anyway. Parliament finally repealed the Combination Acts in 1824. After 1825, the British government unhappily tolerated unions.
British unions had shared goals of raising wages for their members and improving working conditions
In 1886, several unions joined together to form the organization that would become the American Federation of Labor (AFL). A series of successful strikes won AFL members higher wages and shorter hours.
Unions engaged in collective bargaining,
negotiations between workers and their employers. They bargained for better working conditions and higher pay.
Skilled workers led the way in forming unions because their special skills gave them extra bargaining power.
refuse to work
professor at the University of Glasgow, Scotland,
-defended the idea of a free economy, or free markets
-book The Wealth of Nations
-economic liberty guaranteed economic progress
****arguments rested on what he called the three natural laws of economics:
• the law of self-interest—People work for their own good.
• the law of competition—Competition forces people to make a better product.
• the law of supply and demand—Enough goods would be produced at the
lowest possible price to meet demand in a market economy.
German journalist who introduced
the world to a radical type of socialism called
thought that the Industrial Revolution had enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor
outlined their ideas in a 23-page pamphlet called The Communist Manifesto.
In their manifesto, Marx and Engels argued that human societies have always been divided into warring classes. While the wealthy controlled the means of producing goods, the poor performed backbreaking labor under terrible conditions.
This situation resulted in conflict:
Marx believed that the capitalist system would eventually destroy itself in the following
- Factories would drive small artisans out of business, leaving a small number of
manufacturers to control all the wealth.
-The large proletariat would revolt, seize the
factories and mills from the capitalists, and produce what society needed.
-Workers, sharing in the profits, would bring about economic equality for all people.
stated their belief that economic forces alone dominated society.
what economic, social, and political reforms arose from the industrial revolution
paliament passed bill to end slave trade
economical: minimum wage, shorter working hours
-In both Great Britain and the United
States, new laws reformed some of the worst abuses of industrialization.
-The new law of Factory Act of 1833 made it illegal to hire children under 9 years old.
-Mines Act prevented women and children from working underground.
-Ten Hours Act of 1847 limited the workday to ten hours for women and children who worked in factories
-passed laws to protect child workers.
what are the three natural laws of economics & how do they relate to each other?
both business A and business B compete to produce the best product possible. costs $5 for business A to produce with a selling price of $15 per set of 2 trees. And $6 for business B to produce with a selling price of $17 for a set of 2 trees. there are 50 customers. In order for business B to go with supply in demand, they will have to lower price and improve product to increase the demand of customers. this relates them because they are competing and need to use the law of supply and demand while in fact they only care about to success of their own business which is the law of self interest.
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