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160 terms

Psychology

Psychology
STUDY
PLAY
The greatest advantage of naturalist observation is that it
can reveal how people actually behave in everday life
Theories are vital tools for th efield of human development because they
provide organizing frameworks for our observations of people
Chromsky's Lad is...
an innate system that permits young children to understand and speak in a rule-oritnted fashion
Down syndrome is most commonly caused by
failure of the 21st pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis
Vygotsky's theory focuses on
how culture is transmitted to the next generation
fertilization usually takes place in the
falopian tubes
_______ is an example of a history-graded infuluence in development
the introduction of the internet
the sex of a baby is determined by
whether an Zbearing or a Y bearing sperm fertilizes the ovum
Which country has the highest infant death rate?
the US
Baby Nadia's body looks wasted and she is withdrawn and apathetic. However, she is offered enough food and no biological cause for her condition can be found. She most likely has
nonorganic failure to thrive
What happens as a result of synaptic pruning?
seldom stimulated neurons lose their synapses
In Erikson's theory, ____________ is associated with a positive outcome of infancy.
the quality of the caregiver's behavior
the information-processing approach frequently relies on flowcharts to
describe the human cognitive system
Recall is more challenging than recognition because it
involves remembering a stimulus that is not present
The Apgar Scale rates characteristics of a newborn, including the baby's
heart rate, color and muscle tone
Information processing researchers use flowcharts to
map the precise steps children use in solving problems
_______________ is typical of children born with fetal alcohol syndrome
mental retardation
____________ is an example of a nonormative influence
being born deaf
____________ are examples of self conscious emotions
shame and embarassment
In Piaget's theory, a circular reaction is a means of building schemes in which infants
try to repeat chance motor behaviors again and again
Fraternal twins result when
two ova are fertilized by two sperm cells
A ________ refers to any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
teratogen
To examine whether children's popularity is stable or changes across the years, Dr. Clique followed a group of children from the time they were 5 years old to the time they were 18 years old. This is an example of a _____ design
longitudinal
Lateralization research demonstrates that
each hemisphere receives sensory information from the opposite side of the body
Jack and Jake are fraternal twins. Tom and Tim are identical twins. Based on prior research, one would expect the IQ correlation
to be higher for Tom and Tim than for Jack and Jake.
The period of the zygote lasts about ____, beginning with _________.
2 weeks; fertilization
During the second half of th first year, infants' most frequent expression of fear is
stranger anxiety
One yr old Jacob has developed a strong, affectionate tie to his mother. He feels great pleasure when he is with her and he is comforted by being near to her. This is an example of
attachment
Compared to breastfed babies, bottle-fed babies
have more allergic reactions and respiratory and intestinal illnesses
The average newborn sleeps __________ hours a day
16-18
In all societies studied, the most common attachment pattern is
secure
Marcus was physically abused by his parents during his early years. Now he is in elementary school and living with a foster family; his school counselor believes that the negative events of his first few years can be overcome by his now positive life circumstances. The conselor emphasizes the role of ______ in development
nurture
Early in his careet, Piaget derived his ideas about cognitive change during the first two years by
observing his own children and presenting them with everyday problems
Social referencing is important to children's development because it allows parents to
teach children how to react to novel events
__________ permit inferences about cause and effect relationships
experimental designs
A mother picks up and talks with her infant whenever the infant vocalizes. The mother's behavior is a
reinforcer
Research shows that ______ genes lie along the human chromosomes
20,000 - 25,000
According to Piaget, during _____, children interpret experinces in terms of existing schemes, whereas in ________, old schemes are adjusted and new ones created to make sense of the environment
assimilation;accomadation
Dynamic systems theory provides convincing evidence that the development of motor skills is...
profoundly influenced by the physical environment
According to Vygotsky, the force that drives a child's cognitive development is
joint activities with more competent others
The overriding factor in positive adjustment following divorce is
effective parenting
To get her favorit doll away from her brother, Mimi grabs the doll out of his hand and then pushes him down. This is an example of ___ aggression
instrumental
Marcella is anxious and unhappy. She is low in self esteem and self reliance and tends to react with hostility when frustrated. She most likely has parents who have an _________ style of child rearing
authoritarian
Jon i staking a test in which he is asked to come up with as many different ways as possible to make use of a paperclip. This is most likely a test of
divergent thinking
Longitudinal research reveals that, over time, the ability of ____ children does not predict their performance
learned helpless
A deficit underlying the diverse sysmptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is
an impairment in inhibition
"Girls resort to indirect relational tactics more often than do boys" is supported by research on...
aggression during the preschool years
Sally and Susie are using dolls to act out a make believe story in which Sally is the mother and Susie is the daughter. What type o fplay are these preschoolers engageing in?
cooperative play
_______________ has the highest divorce rate in the world.
US
A large discrepancy between the school age childs ideal self and real self can undermine
self esteem
By age 6, the brain has reached __________ percent of its adult weight
90
Three yr old Maya is building a block tower. Maya's faterh begins by pointing to where each block needs to go and then straightening out each block as Maya piles them up. As maya's competence with the task increases, her fater gradually withdraws support. This is an example of
scaffolding
Vinny and Marguerite are both building towers from the same large pile of blocks, but they do not talk to each other or direct each other's activities. They are engaged in _______ play.
parallel
If you asked 4 yr old Kate to tell you about herself, she would probably describe herself in terms of
observable characteristics
Piaget's three mountains task demonstrates preschoolers"
egocentrism
Riley is impulsive, disobedient, and rebellious. He is also demanding and dependent on adults. HIs parents are most likely to fit which of the following child rearing styles?
permissive
Research on sex differences in motor skills during middle childhood indicates that
girls outperform boys on skills that depend on agility and balance
Laren says to her playmates, "Don't let Renee play with your dolls. She'll steal them." This is an example of _____ aggression
relational
Natasha's parents have an authoritative child rearing style. Natasha is likely to
feel especially good about herself
The Stanford-Binet and the Weschler are most often used...
to identify students who are highly intelligent or have learning problems
In treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, stimulant medication
reduces symptoms in 70 percent of children, probably by increasing frontal lobe activity
In his triarchic theory of intelligence, Sternberg argues that
people who are creative think more skillfully than others when faced with novelty
According to vygotsky, private speech during the preschool years
helps young children guide their behavior during challenging tasks
The ______ aids in balance and control of body movement
cerebellum
As children move into adolescence, self concept becomes increasingly dependent on in formation from
close friends
According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of middle childhood is
industry versus inferiority
Studies of IQ correlations among kinship pairs indicate that
correlations for identical twins are higher than for fraternal twins
Three yr old Gwen explains that her bicycle is sad because it is alone in the garage. Gwen is demonstrating
animalistic thinking
At lunch time, 4 yr old Christopher was convinced that his sister Emma had more sandwich than he had simply because her sandwich was cut into four pieces. This demonstrates that Christopher lacks
conservation
Lack of effective learning strategies, reduced persistence, and a sense of loss of control are all associated with
learned helplessness
Effective coregulation is based on
a cooperative relationship between parent and child
According to Piaget, one limitation of concrete operational thought is that it is not yet
abstract
__________ are common everyday explanations for the causes of behavior
attributions
Gus is able to mentally represent his neighborhood and describe the space to others. His mental representation of his neighborhood is known as
a cognitive map
Two yr old Calvin says, "my cup falled," when his cup fell off of th table. The grammatical error in Calvin's sentence is known as an
overregularization
Development of th ecorpus callosum underlies
smooth communication between the two cerebral hemispheres
Gains in ______ permit the transition to rule oriented games in middle childhood
perspective taking
Most 3 and 4 yr olds believe that magic...
accounts for unusual beings an dunexplainable events
Contrary to Freud's beliefs, recent research provides evidence that
guilt is not the only motivator of moral action
Children with autism rarely
attribute mental states to themselves or others
Whe asked about his career plans, Simon says, "Haven't thought about it. Doesnt make too much difference what I do" He is characterized by
identity diffusion
Lauren enjoys working with ideas; Julia prefers interacting with people. According to Holland's six personality types, Lauren is considered _____ and Julia is considered _________.
investigative; social
Because Asa's past relationships have been characterized by jealousy and emotional distance, he feels a great deal of mistrust for his love partners. He feels anxiety about people "getting too close" and stresses the need for independence in his relationships. Based on this information, we can conclude that Asa an _________ attachment history
avoidant
Although Kohlberg proposes six stages of moral development, most never move beyond
Stage 4
The most consistent predictor of marital stability is
the age of the bride and groom at marriage
Calvin has a 20 percent greater body weight than he should have, based on his age, sex, and physical build. Calvin is considered to be
obese
A teenage boy's first ejaculation is known as
spermarche
In the chemistry of aging, a free radical is
a highly reactive chemical produced naturally by the body that forms in the presence of oxygen
Samera and Addison are a married couple in their early thirties who feel increasing pressure to buy a home and have children. This age related expectation for what they should accomplish during this period of their lives is
based on the social clock
The major fact or that makes girls in one region of the world reach menarche earlier than those in another region is most likely their
physical well being
Trishas mother is a lesbian. Trisha will most likely be
heterosexual and well adjusted
According to Erikson, someone who suffers a negative outcome to the psychological conflict of adolescence will experience
role confusion
Whe overweight and obesity rates are combined, _________ percent of Americans are considered to be at an unhealthy weight
65
One factor that makes treatment for anorexia very difficult is that
victims generally deny that any problem exists
Talli finds that she is attracted to men who are intelligent, ambitious, financially secure, and have a strong moral character. According to evolutionary theory, Talli8 is instinctively drawn to this type of man because these traits will ensure that he can
help raise their children successfully
Raj has realized that he is love with his girlfriend and wants to maintain their relationship by getting married. This is characteristic of the ____ component of love
commitment
What is linked most strongly to homosexuality?
heredity
Parents with what kind of parenting style will most likely have teenagers with superior school performance?
parents with aughoritative parenting styles
According to some theorists, cognitive development continues past the stages identified in Piaget's theory, leading to a stage called
postformal thought
According to Levinson's theory, each era of adult development begins with a _________, which is then followed by a stable period in which individuals build a life structure.
transition
What statement contradicts the theory that aging occurs as the body wears out from use?
moderate to vigorous exercise is related to longer lifespans
Nadine gained 10 pounds between the ages of 25 and 50. She should know that this is...
normal becaue of a drop in the basal metabolic rate
Katarina accepts her family's political an dreligious beliefs without question . She is characterized by
identity foreclosure
Fifty four yr old Abdul has become concerned about the values of the new generation and the state of our current society. He becomes a tutor and mentor for a program at a local community center that works with at risk youth. His actions are consistent with
Vaillant's theories regarding the "keepers of meaning" and guardians of culture
Viggo and Olivia communicate with each other in warm and tender ways and frequently express concern for each other's well being. According to Sternberg, they are displaying the ______ component of love
intimacy
________ have a higher rate of suicide, and tend to use techniques that lead to instant death, such as firearms
boys
Shobana want s to rely more on herself than on her parents when decisions come up that affect her. She feels more independent from her parents than at any other time of her life. Shobana is developing
autonomy
Kohlberg assessed moral maturity by describing a moral dilemma and analyzing a person's responses to it. His analysis focused primarily on which aspect of the response?
reasoning
The most common psychological problem of adolescence is
depression
twenty yr old Dominic explored the possibility of becoming a teacher by tutoring in an after school program. He then chose to major in education . Dominic is in the _________ of vocational development
realistic period
According to Erikson, the major personality achievement during adolescence is
identity
Although Suzanna desperately wants to learn how to dive, she refuses to practice at the pool because "everyone will be watching me and laugh because im the only one who cant do it" her thinking reflects
the imaginary audience
What do adolescents experiment with most during the teenage years?
alcohol
______________ adolescents are able to come up with new, general logical rules through internal reflection
formal operational
As a child, David was negarive, restless, and willful. By age 8, he was already engaging in petty theft. Jamal was a happy child who did well in school but began displaying antisocial behavior around age 13 and gradually moved to more severe delinquent acts
David is at a higher risk for leading a life of full aggression and criminality
What is a strong predictor of divorce?
drinking or using drugs
A secular trend in the timing of puberty is a tendency for
girls to mature earlier than their mothers
Which person is likely to report the lowest level of satisfaction with his sex life?
Christopher, who is single and has had five different partners in the last year
__________ reach puberty an average of 2 yrs earlier than boys do
girls
______________ are more likely to engage in higher rates of sexual activity.
Married couples
Alexa drew up a written document in which she specified the treatments she does and does not want in cases when she may be near to death. Alexas document is a
living will
Elder abuse is more common if the elder's caregiver is
emotionally or financially dependent on the elder
Among Westerners, which factor seems to have a greater impact on reducing death anxiety
a spiritual sense of life's meaning
Janelle, who recently retired from a high-level managerial job, has no interest in anything outside of her former work and feels that she is worthless. According to Peck, Janelle needs to work on the task of
ego differentiation
May stops by her mother June's house twice a day to check on her. If June is having trouble getting dressed or making the bed, then May helps her and the two women chat while they work. However, if June has no trouble with tsks like making coffee or unloading the dishwasher, then May withdraws and attends to other jobs. June's satisfaction with her support relationship with May is probably due to the fact that
the support is not perceived as demeaning or unpleasant
Mr. Hiroshi is experiencing painful, stiff, and swollen joints and muscles. His doctor informs him that the cartilage on the ends of his bones is deteriorating due to decades of wear and tear
osteorthritis
Which comonent of Type A behavior, when isolated, consistently predicts heart disease and other health problems?
hostility
A definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is made by
EXAMINING THE BRAIN AFTER DEATH
If an elderly couple stops having sexual activity, which partner typically initiates this cessation?
the man
The function of Kbler-Ross's ____________________ phase is self protective, allowing the person to invest in rewarding activities and deal with the illness at his or her own pace
denial
Presbyopia is
the inability of the lens to adjust to objects at varying distances
The ______ refers to a trend in which women who support themselves or their families have become the majority of the adult poverty population
feminization of poverty
What is a good example of secondary aging?
heart disease from smoking cigarettes
Which factor contributes to resilience after widowhood?
continued social relationships that were important before the spouse's death
The earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are generally
severe memory lapses
The negative outcome, or lack of a sense of generativity, of Erikson's midlife stage is ______________ which focuses on self indulgence
stagnation
In Erikson's theory of development, ego integrity versus despair involves
coming to terms with one's life
Most people who reach Kbler_Ross's acceptance stage
do so only in the last weeks or days of life
One hundred North American middle aged adults died last year. If the adults are statistically average, how many of those deaths were caused by cardiovascular disease?
25
Juanita cannot feel the buildup of pressure in her eye due to poor fluid drainage. This pressure, loeft untreated, can damage her optic nerve and is a leading cause of blindness. juanita has
glaucoma
Mr and Mrs Riediger are undergoing reproductive transitions. mrs Riediger is no longer able to have children, while Mr Riediger's fertility has diminished . They both are undergoing
climacteric
Celeste's partner, Nadine, has just died. Nadine's family never approved of their relationship and will not allow Celeste to take part in or attend the funeral services. Without the opportunity to mourn publicly and benefit from other's support, Celeste is at risk for
disenfranchised grief
At age 43, Darryl is a successful lawyer who gets a lot of satisfaction from guiding young lawyers starting out in the firm, coaching his daughter's basketball team, and being camp leader for his son's Boy Scout troop. According to Erikson, he has most clearly developed a sense of
generativity
Although Pearl's mother lived to be 95 , the last 10 yrs of her life were spent in declining health, confined first to a wheelchair and then to a hospital bed. perl wonders how many years of vigorous, healthy life she'll have in comparison to her mother. Pearl wants to find out the average ________ for someone her age
active lifespan
According to vaillant, the primary responsibility for the functioning of society falls on people who are
midlife adults
In his mid forties, Edgar felt enormous turmoil, dissatisfaction, and unhappiness with his life. He decided to quit his job, leave his family, and start a new life on a communal farm in Colorado. Research on midlife crisis indicates that Edgar is
very unusual for middle aged adults
Which type of intelligence increases steadily throughout adulthood?
crystallized intelligence
martha's mother is terminally ill and is expected to live for six more months. Because Martha can acknowledge that t his loss is inevitable and even prepare for it emotionally allows her to engage in
anticipatory grieving
____________ is the practice of ending the life of a person suffering from an incurable condition
euthanasia
Although 73 yr old Lida has no problem with physical activities, such as dressing and eating, she does have difficulty with tasks that require some cognitive competence, such as preparing food and paying her bills. Lida is displaying difficulty in
instrumental activities of daily living
Yin-sing, at age 80, cant face the idea that she will die and the world will go on. She has children and grandchildren, but is not interested in their lives or futures. According to Peck, Yin sing needs to work on
ego transcendence
May stops by her mother June's house twice a day to check on her. If June is having trouble getting dressed she helps her. but if she is doin fine May with draws. Mays behavior of withdrawing when June is doing fine can be considered
independence ignore script
Estalee is near death and receiving palliative care. this means that she
will receive care aimed at relieving her pain and other symptoms, such as nausea and insomnia
Donna is highly organized, punctual, and reliable. Her friends and coworkers know she can always be counted on to meet her deadlines and keep her promises. Donna best exemplifies which of the big five personality traits?
conscientiousness
Majorie worries constantly about the trouble her children might get into. She complains that they go out of their way to make her life miserable and that she doesn't know how to deal with her life Majorie is at one extreme of which of theise big five personality traits
neuroticism
In Levinson's theory of adult development, the period when people evaluate how successful they have been in a meeting their early goals and focus on how best to modify their lives to have a meaningful future is called the
midlife transition
The term psychologists use for a person's actual competence and performance in dealing with life's challenges is _________ age.
functional
In long term studies of personality traits, elders who seemed to have come to terms with life despite its imperfections showed an increase in
agreeableness
The first sign of hearing loss in middle age is typically
a sharp hearing loss at high frequencies
Today teh term hospice refers to
a program of support services for dying people and their families