How is Policy Made?
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Terms in this set (78)
How did the change in federal contributions to evidence-informed policy become more involved in state and local criminal justice?held national conferences, conducted surveys, and interviewed a large number of individuals in 2 years.LEAAlaw enforcement assistance administrationCritical Elements in todays federal leadership-development of scientific knowledge -responsible for distributing findings to policymakers and practitioners -provide training and technical assistance -provide funding opportunities for effective programs -encourage the use of science among states and localitiesState, local and non-government organization contributionswork together in encouraging the adoption of evidence-informed policiesExample of State, local and non-government organization contributions-the Missouri model -the gun involved violence elimination (GIVE) -the Washington state institute for public policy (WSIPP)Recommendations for continued progress-the emerging bipartisan consensus on criminal justice reform must be protected -federal leadership and support for science must be maintained and continued -scientific evidence and quantitate approaches must be embraced by all practitioners within the criminal justice system -academics must "bridge cultural differences" and increase engagement with practitioners -the amount of scientific knowledge must continue to increase -increase use of criminal justice statistics in science and policy discussions -maintaining funding opportunitiesEvaluation researchthe use of scientific methods to derive empirical estimates that address the prevalence of a social problem, characteristics of certain individuals, groups, or organizations, policy implementation, as well as the association among variables.Assessmentthe process of reviewing information and deciding whether the policies benefits suffice to warrant enacting the policy, the feasibility of policy enactment, continuing to support existing policies, concerns about unintended effects, and whether other social problems or policies require further attention.Bad policyineffective, costly and harmful. Harmful policies can cause actual harm or divert attention from effective and cost-effective alternatives.Problematic situations with policy evaluation (3)1. Extremes as evidence used to construct policies 2. Reliance on Anecdotes 3. Development of policies without researchExtremeswhen these cases demand attention, they shift the conversation and in turn, create legislations that are suited for the extreme cases but end up being applied to more conventional cases. Divert attention from something more conventional, but no less critical.Anecdotesnot scientific evidence, they can be examples of one type of representative case, or they could constitute an extreme. They appeal to common sense. Can create interventions that have a small chance of being effective, but when evaluated, may be found to be ineffective. "common sense can lead to quackery"Lack of empirical researchReferencing studies that use non-random samples, unreliable or invalid measures, lack of comparison groups, etc. A majority of criminal justice policy is characterized by the absence of credible research. A majority of such policies guide the daily operations of law enforcement agencies, jails, prisons, courts, etc.What is the evaluation hierarchy?provides a research-based foundation that determines if empirical evidence exists to support the policy.What makes an ideal policy?-targeted towards important social problems or needs -grounded in credible theory and empirical evidence -well-implemented -effective -cost-efficientInstitutionalization of policy evaluationMost studies focus on one place, policy, or time. Evaluation hierarchy requires that evaluation occurs constantly. Institutionalizing policy evaluations would require increased funding opportunities and research division would need to be integrated into the policymaking process.What are the benefits of policy evaluation?-important for gov. accountability -creates an understanding of the magnitude of different social problems and their causes -aids in identifying "what works" -provides evidence about social problems that can be changedWhat is Casual Uncertainty?***They are unaware of how certain problems result from certain causes, or how well policies are addressing the issue.*** (one of the main issues policymakers encounter.) If research is not funded, policymakers will be forced to rely on extreme cases, anecdotes, and weak research. The more types of evaluation research that inform policy efforts, the less concern there is about casual uncertainty.Policy implementationThe process of interaction between the setting of goals and the actions to achieve them. The actions by public or private individuals (or groups) that are directly at the achievement of objectives set forth in policy decisions. Stage in policy cycle where formulated policies, intentions and visions are executed and operationalized.Examples of policy actions (3)Actions taken by the government to address public needs, they can come in a variety of forms. -a result of a piece of legislation -a result of judicial action -an internal agency policyImplementation activities (3)-organization -interpretation -applicationImportance of implementation"once a policy is formulated, enacted and adopted, it will logistically be implemented."Factors for policy success-social acceptability -unity and clarity of purpose - common understanding of goals -capability to implement -communication and commitment -efficient and effective -sufficient resourcesFactors for policy failure-exploitation or distortion of the concept of public welfare -lack of unity or common purpose - goals unclear -no motivation to implement -the intervention of politicians -resource shortageImplementation approaches (5)-structural approach -procedural and managerial approach -behavioral approach -political approach -street-level approachStructural approachrequires choosing the appropriate organization form to accomplish the tasksProcedural and managerial approachdevelops appropriate processes and procedures for managing and implanting programsBehavioral approachapplies acceptability and consensus building in implementationPolitical approachanticipates political obstacles and considers them before the formation of objectives and selection of options.Street-level approachpolicy actions undertaken by public servants, also referred to as street-level bureaucrats.Who are street-level bureaucrats?the people at the front lines of public service who put policy into action. ex. police officers, probation officers, correction officersThe "law-on-the-books" vs. "law-in-action"what is written as policy is often more theory than reality because implementing a policy at the street-level is seldom as neat and clean as it appears on the page.Bureaucracythe structure and rules that allow large organizations to pursue their missions and goals, and is indicative of any sizable organization.Examples of a bureaucracy-Walt Disney incorporation -universities -government agenciesOrganizational Structures-specialization -division of labor -hierarchy -formal rules -organizational cultures -neutralitySpecializationpositions require specific education, training and experience requirements.Divison of laborpositions and titles of individuals signal a clear division of the labor within departments and agencies.Hierarchycareer ranks.Formal Rulescan include rules and regulations that guarantee rights to the citizens by U.S. and state constitutions, federal and state statutes, and agency-specific requirements.NeutralityImpersonal nature; the size and complexity of modern society and organizations make it impractical for bureaucrats to become closely tied to the people they serve. Criminal justice system expects fairness and equal treatment under the law, thus bureaucrats must be neutral towards citizens.Characteristics of street-level policy implementation-factors shaping implementation -rules and regulations -professional norms -discretion -autonomy -narrativesFactors shaping the way bureaucrats implement policy-inadequate resources to perform tasks -demand for services has a tendency to increase to meet the supply -work goals are vague, often ambiguous, and sometimes contradictory -performance toward goal expectations is difficult to objectively measure -clients are often not voluntarily involved in services -public accountabilityRules and regulations ensure that:-policies are implemented uniformly -public money is spent wisely -citizens are treated equallyProfessional normsstreet-level bureaucrats or professionals operate under various norms. -occupational -professional -communityMinimum standards of professional behavior-codes of conduct -ethics -oaths of loyalty -state sanctioned licenses and certificationsDiscretioninvolves using ones own judgments, opinion, or reasoning to make decisions int he course of carrying out public policies. in cases where the rules and regulations are vague and ambiguous, or contradictory, street-level bureaucrats can use their discretion to take action and carry out their duties.Discretion is based on:-training -education -experience -community norms -moral judgementsAutonomypotential to avoid duties rather than workWhat are the two Narratives?State agent and Citizen agent. Identifies by Steven Maynard-Moody and Michael Musheno (2003)State agentassumes that public policies are carried out through abidance to the laws, regulations, and procedures of the bureaucrat's agency and profession.Citizen agentinvolves the judgments that street-level bureaucrats make about the characters, motives, and identities of the citizens with whom they come into contact.Principal Agent Theorythe relationship between the actor that creates the work (the principal) and the actor that carries out the work (the agent)Principals use a series of strategies including:-rule setting -monitoring -evaluationStrategies used by principals ensure that the agents are not engaging in behaviors, such as:-shirking: hanging out at coffee shops -sabotage: undermining criminal justice policy objectivesAccountability-professional accountability -participatory/citizen accountability -political accountability -mechanisms to check the power of street-level bureaucrats -accountability to different groupsProfessional accountabilityHorizontal. Behaviors are shaped by one's peers and the ethical norms of ones professionParticipatory/citizen accountabilityBottom-up. Involves clients and other members of the public using their citizenship responsibilities to influence the behavior of street-level bureaucrats. Citizens oversight committees.Political accountabilityTop-down. The link between the bureaucracy and our representative system of democracyAccountability to different groups-the victims of crime -the felons in their care -fellow officers -professional associates -elected officials -supervisorsEthicsdetermines whether criminal justice policies are based on sound "moral" principles.Theorya system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explainedIdeologya systematic set of deeply held beliefs used by people to justify personal decisions and policy preferences.Valuesfundamental beliefs of what a person holds as "value". Determine how a person actually behaves.Moralsvalues attributed to a system of beliefs. ex. a religious or political systemEthics =BehaviorValues =BeliefsThe elements of ethical communication-awareness of agenda -individual responsibility -acknowledge levels of power -commitment to resolution -open to new ideasExample of ethical communicationReacting v. Responding