Seminal glands: yellowish viscous alkaline fluid containing fructose sugar, citric acid, a coagulating enzyme (vesiculase), and prostaglandins, as well as other substances that enhance sperm motility or fertilizing ability.
Prostate gland: a milky, slightly acid fluid that contains citrate (a nutrient source), several enzymes (including fibrinolysin, hyaluronidase, and acid phosphatase), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
Bulbourethral gland: thick, clear mucus, some of which drains into the spongy urethra and lubricates the glans penis when a man becomes sexually excited.
-mucus neutralizes traces of acidic urine and lubricates the urethra just prior to ejaculation
FSH: secreted by pituitary cells, stimulates spermatogenesis, enhances testosterone's stimulatory effects by stimulating the sustentocytes to release (ABP)
LH: secreted by pituitary cells, stimulates secretion of progesterone
GNRH: controls the release of FSH and LH
ABP: secreted by sustentocytes, keeps the concentration of testosterone in the vicinity of the spermatogenic cells high, which in turn stimulates spermatogenesis
Testosterone: stimulates maturation of sex organs, development and maintenance of secondary sex
characteristics, and libido (sex drive).
Inhibin: produced by the sustentocytes, serves as a "barometer" of the normalcy of spermatogenesis
-when the sperm count is high, more inhibin is released, inhibiting anterior pituitary release of FSH and hypothalamic release of GnRH.
-sexual excitement triggers a parasympathetic reflex that promotes release of nitric oxide (NO) locally; stimulation of the bulbo-urethral glands, the secretion of which lubricates the glans penis; innervate the internal pudendal arteries serving the penis.
-when impulses provoking erection reach a critical level, a spinal reflex is initiated, and a massive discharge of nerve impulses occurs over the sympathetic nerves serving the genital organs
-The bladder sphincter muscle constricts, preventing expulsion of urine or reflux of semen into the bladder.
-The reproductive ducts and accessory glands contract, emptying their contents into the urethra.
-Semen in the urethra triggers a spinal reflex through somatic motor neurons. The bulbospongiosus muscles of the penis undergo a rapid series of contractions, propelling
semen from the urethra
-These rhythmic contractions are accompanied by intense pleasure and many systemic
changes, such as generalized muscle contraction, rapid heartbeat, and elevated blood pressure.
-Activity of sympathetic nerve fibers constricts the internal pudendal arteries (and penile arterioles), reducing blood flow into the penis, and activates small muscles that squeeze the cavernous bodies, forcing blood from the penis into the general circulation.
- served by the ovarian arteries, branches of the abdominal and by the ovarian branch of the uterine arteries
-ovarian blood vessels reach the ovaries by traveling through the suspensory ligaments and mesovaria
-each ovary is surrounded externally by a fibrous tunica albuginea, which is in turn covered externally by a layer of cuboidal epithelial cells called the germinal epithelium, actually a continuation of the peritoneum
-has an outer cortex, which houses the forming gametes, and an inner medulla containing the largest blood vessels and nerves, but the relative extent of each region is poorly defined.
-in vascular connective tissue of the ovary cortex are many tiny saclike structures called ovarian follicles
-each follicle consists of an immature egg, called an oocyte egg), encased by one or more layers of very different cells.
-The surrounding cells are called follicle cells if a single layer is present, and granulosa cells when more than one layer is present
- different stages of maturation are distinguished by their structure, which ranges from primordial follicles with a single layer of follicle cells surrounding the oocyte to more mature follicles with several layers of granulosa cells
- primordial follicle: the earliest type of follicle, whose wall consists of a single layer of flattened epithelial-type cells (called follicular cells), is called a (2 million in each ovary at birth)
- primary follicle: when a primordial follicle is activated (this occurs almost a year before its possible ovulation), the squamouslike cells surrounding the primary oocyte grow, becoming cuboidal cells, and the oocyte enlarges
-next, the follicular cells proliferate, forming a stratified epithelium around the oocyte.
-as soon as more than one cell layer is present, the follicle is called a secondary follicle and the follicle cells take on the name granulosa cells. (grows tremendously during this stage!)
-the secondary follicle stage ends when a clear liquid begins to accumulate between the granulosa cells, producing the early vesicular (antral) follicle.
--zona pellucida and theca interna develop
-when six to seven layers of granulosa cells are present, the fluid between the granulosa cells coalesces to form a large fluid-filled cavity called the antrum (cave). the presence of the antrum distinguishes vesicular follicles from all prior follicles (preantral follicles).
1. Days 1-5: Menstrual phase: in this phase, menstruation, the uterus sheds all but the deepest part of its endometrium.
-the thick, hormone-dependent functional layer of the endometrium detaches from the uterine wall, a process accompanied by bleeding for 3-5 days
-detached tissue and blood pass out through the vagina as the menstrual flow
-by day 5, the growing ovarian follicles start to produce more estrogen
2. Days 6-14: Proliferative (preovulatory) phase: in this phase, the endometrium rebuilds itself: Under the influence of rising blood levels of estrogens, the basal layer of the endometrium generates a new functional layer
-as this new layer thickens, its glands enlarge and its spiral arteries increase in number
-Consequently, the endometrium once again becomes velvety, thick, and well vascularized
-During this phase, estrogens also induce the endometrial cells to synthesize progesterone receptors, readying them for interaction with progesterone.
3. Days 15-28: Secretory (postovulatory) phase: this 14-day phase is the most constant timewise
-during the secretory phase the endometrium prepares for an embryo to implant
-rising levels of progesterone from the corpus luteum act on the estrogen-primed endometrium, causing the spiral arteries to elaborate and converting the functional layer to a secretory mucosa
-the endometrial glands enlarge, coil, and begin secreting nutrients into the uterine cavity that will sustain the embryo until it has implanted in the blood-rich endometrial lining.
-As progesterone levels rise, the cervical mucus becomes viscous again, forming the cervical plug, which helps to block entry of sperm and pathogens or other foreign materials.
-if no fertilization the corpus luteum degenerates toward the end of the secretory phase as LH blood levels decline progesterone levels fall, depriving the endometrium of hormonal support, and the spiral arteries kink and go into spasms spiral arteries constrict one final time and then suddenly relax and open wide blood gushes into the weakened capillary beds, they fragment causing the functional layer to slough off.
The uterine cycle starts over again on this first day of menstrual flow.
FEMALE: find picture
-Tanner stage 1: pre-adolescent and see elevation of the nipple only; no pubic hair or breast development
-Stage 2: breast bud development; elevation of the breast and nipple becomes a small mound; sparse growth of long, slightly-pigmented downy hair along the labia
stage 3: further development of elevation of the breast and the areola (no separation of contours); darker, coarser, curlier hair that is spread over the pubic symphysis
-stage 4: projection of the areola, and the nipple projects with it to form a secondary mound; course and curly pubic hair as an adult would; covering more area than stage 3 but not as much hair as stage 5
-stage 5: mature stage, the projection of the nipple only, while the areola recedes to the general contour (nipple protrudes); quality and quantity of adult hair extends to the thighs, but not on the abdomen
-stage 1: pre-adolescent, no pubic hair
-stage 2: sparse growth of long, slightly pigmented, downy hair at the base of the penis; penis has slight or no enlargement; testes and scrotum are larger, are reddened and altered in texture
-stage 3: darker, coarser, curlier hair, that spreads sparsely over the pubic symphysis; penis will enlarge in length, and testes and scrotum are also enlarged
-stage 4: this coarse curly hair is that of an adult, covering more than stage 3 but not as much as stage 5 and does not include the thighs; penis is enlarged in width and length with development of the glands; testes and scrotum are enlarged and become darker
-stage 5: quality and quantity of adult hair reaches the thigh but does not go onto the abdomen; penis, tests, and scrotum are adult size and shape