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124 terms

ALL TESTS & QUIZZES

STUDY
PLAY
True
T/F A theory is a statement of how and why facts are related.
True
T/F Robert Merton argued that manifest functions are the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern.
False
T/F The chief characteristic of the social-conflict approach is its vision of society as stable and orderly.
False
T/F Structural-functional theories might explain the high rate of divorce by looking at society's basic inequalities between males and females.
D. human society
Sociology is the systematic study of:
A. the consumption of goods and services in a society.
B. personality and human development
C. common sense knowledge
D. human society
D. the symbolic-interaction approach
Which approach focuses on how society is experienced and how individual behavior changes from one situation to another?
A. the structural-functional approach
B. the macro-level approach
C. the social-conflict approach
D. the symbolic-interaction approach
B. the importance of social class in inequality and social conflict.
Karl Marx believed that:
A. Race as the major problem facing the U.S. in the 20th century
B. the importance of social class in inequality and social conflict
C. social structure refers to any relatively stable patterns of social behavior found in social institutions
D. None of the above
Social-conflict
_________ _________ views society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and social change.
Structural-functional
_________ __________ is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.
Manifest functions
_________ _________ are the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern.
Jane Addams
Which of the following social scientists founded Hull House?
-Max Weber
-Harriet Martineau
-Jane Addams
-Talcott Parsons
False
T/F The values of a common culture do not change.
True
T/F Members of a subculture participate in the dominant culture, while at the same time engaging in unique and distinctive forms of behavior.
False
T/F Anyone who feels disoriented, uncertain, out of place, or even fearful when immersed in an unfamiliar culture may be experiencing "cultural distinction", termed by Emile Durkheim.
True
T/F Language can transmit stereotypes related to race.
True
T/F Material culture is a reflection of a society's technology.
True
T/F Some values are inconsistent and even contradict each other.
D. the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people's way of life.
Culture includes:
A. only the nonmaterial products of a society.
B. only the material products of a society.
C. the land around us.
D. the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people's way of life.
C. Speaking only English in public
Which of the following items does sociologist Robin Williams not consider a key value in U.S. culture?
A. Achievement and success
B. Democracy and free enterprise
C. Speaking only English in public
D. Racism and group superiority
A. Multicultural
Of all the world's countries, the U.S. is the most:
A. Multicultural
B. Culturally uniform
C. Slowly changing
D. Resistant to cultural diversity
D. non-material culture
Ideas created by members of a society are part of:
A. high culture
B. material culture
C. norms
D. non-material culture
False (Auguste Comte)
T/F Karl Marx coined the term sociology.
False
T/F There are four major theoretical approaches within the discipline of sociology.
True
T/F Robert Merton argued that manifest functions are the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern.
False
T/F The chief characteristic of the social-conflict approach is its vision of society as stable and orderly.
True
T/F The United States is the most multicultural of all the high-income countries in the world.
False
T/F Social-conflict analysis largely ignores diversity within a society.
True
T/F Material culture is a reflection of a society's technology.
True
T/F Like all elements of culture, values change over time.
False
T/F New information technology does not help generate culture.
True
T/F Social science is the study of the social features of humans and the ways they interact and change.
True
T/F In Karl Marx's analysis, society was fundamentally divided between two classes that clash in pursuit of their own interests.
False
T/F Sociologist Robert Merton made an important contribution to the discipline of sociology by arguing that the working class needed to overthrow the existing class system.
False
T/F Macro-sociology stresses the study of small groups, often through experimental means in laboratories.
True
T/F The structural-functionalist perspective emphasizes the way in which parts of a society are structured to maintain it's stability.
False
T/F The term latent function refers to an element or process of society that may actually disrupt a social system or reduce its stability.
True
T/F The conflict theorists are interested in how society's institutions may help to maintain the privileges of some groups and keep others in a subservient position.
False
T/F In sociological terms, culture refers solely to the fine arts and refined intellectual taste.
True
T/F Language is an example of a cultural universal.
False
T/F The values of a common culture do not change.
True
T/F Members of a subculture participate in the dominant culture, while at the same time engaging in unique and distinctive forms of behavior.
False
T/F Anyone who feels disoriented, uncertain, out of place, or even fearful, when immersed in an unfamiliar culture may be experiencing cultural lag.
False
T/F The process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society is referred to as innovation.
B. the totality of learned,socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior.
Culture is defines as:
A. the largest form of human group.
B. the totality of learned,socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior.
C. the established standards of behavior maintained by a society.
D. norms governing everyday behavior.
D. cultural universals
People's need for food, shelter, and clothing are examples of what Murdock referred to as:
A. norms
B. folkways
C. cultural practices
D. cultural universals
B. discovery
The finding of the DNA molecule is an example of a/an:
A. invention
B. discovery
C. cultural universal
D. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
B. Values
Health, love, and democracy are examples of:
A. mores
B. values
C. folkways
D. sanctions
D. structural-functionalist theory
Which theoretical perspective maintains that stability requires a consensus and the support of society's members?
A. social-conflict theory
B. Symbolic-interaction theory
C. Moulton-social control theory
D. structural-functionalist theory
C. a common culture serves to maintain the privileges of certain groups.
Which of the following statements is true from a social-conflict perspective?
A. Stability requires a consensus and the support of a society's members
B. Cultural traits all work toward stabilizing society
C. A common culture serves to maintain the privileges of certain groups.
D. Practices such as prostitution continue to survive because they contribute to the overall social stability.
B. dominant ideology
Which one of the following terms describes the set of cultural beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests?
A. mores
B. dominant ideology
C. consensus
D. values
D. culture shock
An American touring different parts of China wants local meat for dinner, but is shocked to learn that the specialty in one restaurant is dog meat. This illustrates:
A. counterculture
B. dominant ideology
C. a cultural universal
D. culture shock
C. countercultures
Terrorists groups are examples of:
A. cultural universals
B. subcultures
C. countercultures
D. dominant ideologies
C. subculture
What term do sociologists use to refer to a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the pattern of the larger society?
A. dominant culture
B. counterculture
C. subculture
D. superculture
C. cultural relativism
What is he term used when one places a priority on understanding other cultures, rather than dismissing them as "weird", "strange" or"exotic"?
A. ethnocentrism
B. cultural shock
C. cultural relativism
D. xenocentrism
A. ethnocentrism
Evaluating the practices of other cultures on the basis of our own perspective is referred to as:
A. ethnocentrism
B. cultural shock
C. cultural relativism
D. xenocentrism
B. the scientific study of social behavior and human groups
Sociology is:
A. an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society
B. the scientific study of social behavior and human groups
C. concerned with what one individual does or does not do
D. very narrow in scope
D. Structural-functionalist perspective
Which sociologist perspective holds that if an aspect of social life does not contribute to a society's stability or survival it will not be passed on from one generation to the next?
A. Social-conflict
B. Symbolic-interactionist
C. Finnegan's Law of micro-sociology
D. Structural-functionalist
A. social-conflict
Which sociological perspective assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between competing groups?
A. social-conflict
B. symbolic-interactionist
C. Durkheim's micro-sociology
D. structural-functionalist
C. interactionist
Which theoretical perspective would examine society on the micro level (street-level) by focusing on how day-today social behavior is shaped by the distinctive norms, values, and demands of the world of sports?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. both a and b
A. theory
Within sociology, a/an _______ is a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior.
A. theory
B. hypothesis
C. operational definition
D. correlation
A. Karl Marx
________ and Friedrich Engels prepared a platform called The Communist Manifesto, in which they argued that the masses of people who have no resources other than their labor (the proletariat) should unite to fight for the overthrow of capitalist societies.
A. Karl Marx
B. Emile Durkheim
C. Max Weber
D. Herbert Spencer
B. Structural-functionalist
Thinking of society as a living organism in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival is a reflection of which theoretical perspective?
A. Symbolic-interactionist
B. Structural-functionalist
C. Social-conflict
D. Gender-feminist
A. Manifest
________ functions of institutions are open, stated, and conscious.
A. Manifest
B. Latent
C. Dysfunction
D. Structural
C. unconscious and/or unintended
Latent functions are:
A. open, stated, and conscious
B.disruptive and threaten stability
C. unconscious and/or unintended
D. destructive
C. Symbolic-interactionist
The ________ perspective generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to understand society as a whole.
A. Social-conflict
B. Structural-functionalist
C. Symbolic-interactionist
D. Gender-feminist
B. Structural-functional approach
The _________ views culture as a relatively stable system built on core values.
A. sociobiological approach
B. structural-functional approach
C. symbolic-interaction approach
D. social-conflict approach
C. making English the official language of the U.S.
Arguments supporting multiculturalism include all of the following except:
A. it is a good way to strengthen the academic achievements of African American children
B. it is a way to come to terms with our country's increasing social diversity.
C. making English the official language of the U.S.
D. it will break down barriers of historical traditions.
False
T/F Psychological theories explain all types of deviance.
True
T/F In order to understand deviance fully, we must look at how a society defines deviance, who is labeled as deviant, and how a society is organized.
True
T/F We socially construct our behavior so the male-female differences are either created or exaggerated.
False
T/F Income tax evasion, stock manipulation, consumer fraud, and bribery are examples of street-crime.
False
T/F Functionalists maintain that gender differentiation masks underlying power relations between men and women.
False
T/F Violence against women is not a widespread problem in the United States.
True
T/F Because society gives more men more power and other resources than it gives women, gender is an important dimension of social stratification.
True
T/F The challenges to effective social control is that people often receive competing messages about how to behave.
False
T/F Informal social control is carried out by authorized agents, such as managers of movie theaters.
True
T/F Law may be defined as governmental social control.
True
T/F People from lower social positions generally commit more street crime than people with greater social privilege.
True
T/F Conflict theorists see gender differences as a reflection of the subjugation of one group (women) by another group (men).
True
T/F Gender shapes our interests and beliefs about our own abilities.
False
T/F Most people display strictly "masculine" or "feminine" qualities all the time.
False
T/F Overall, the rates of serious violent and property crimes are lower in the U.S. than in Europe.
True
T/F Societal protection is how a society renders an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through incarceration or permanently by execution.
True
T/F For sociologists, the term deviance does not mean perversion or depravity.
False
T/F Two co-workers appear to have a mutual romantic interest in each other. They agree to go on a date (diner and a movie) since they work together this is a quid pro quo and is defined by the courts as sexual harassment.
False
T/F Sex refers to the meaning a culture attaches to being female or male.
False
T/F From a sociological perspective, deviance is objective; it is set in stone.
False
T/F According to conflict theorists, deviance is a common part of human existence, with positive (as well as negative) consequences for social stability.
True
T/F Edwin Sutherland used the term differential association to describe the process through which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to violation of rules.
True
T/F Religion and religious groups as social institutions also engage in many forms of social control.
A. gender roles
Both males and females are physically capable of learning to cook and sew, yet most Western societies determine that these tasks should be performed by women. This illustrates the operation of:
A. gender roles
B. sociobiology
C. homophobia
D. comparable worth
B. conflict
Which sociological perspective contends that the relationship between females and males has traditionally been one of unequal power with men in a dominant position over women?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. dramaturgical
C. functionalist
Which sociological perspective argues that people must respect social norms if any group or society is to survive?
A. conflict
B. interactionist
C. functionalist
D. feminist
A. functionalist
Which sociological perspective would argue that sanctions against deviant behavior help to reinforce society's standards of proper behavior?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. feminist
D. Deviance inhibits social change
According to Durkheim, which of the following is not one of the functions of deviance?
A. Responding to deviance promotes social unity
B. Deviance affirms cultural values and norms
C. Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries
D. Deviance inhibits social change
D. social control
Society brings about acceptance of basic norms through techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior. This process is termed:
A. stigmatization
B. labeling
C. law
D. social control
A. jail
Which of the following is not an example of informal social control?
A. jail
B. laughter
C. raising of an eyebrow
D. ridicule
D. social-conflict
According to the _______ paradigm, laws and other norms reflect the interests of powerful members of a society.
A. structural-functional
B. postmodern
C. symbolic-interaction
D. social-conflict
B. formal social control
Police officers, school administrators, employers, and managers of movie theaters are all instruments of:
A. informal social control
B. formal social control
C. the state
D. the government
B. behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
Deviance is:
A. always criminal behavior
B. behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
C. perverse behavior
D. inappropriate behavior that cuts across all cultures and social orders.
Retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, societal protection.
What are the four justifications of punishment?
B. hate crimes
Criminal acts against a person or a person's property motivated by bias are called:
A. organized crimes
B. hate crimes
C. crimes against property
D. victimless crimes
D .all of the above
For all of us raised in the U.S. society, gender shapes our:
A. feelings
B.thoughts
C. actions
D. all of the above
A. women to believe that their personal importance depends on their looks
There is a "beauty myth" in the U.S. that encourages:
A. women to believe that their personal importance depends on their looks
B. beautiful women to think they do not need men
C. men to improve their physical appearance in order to attract women
D. women to think they are as physically attractive as today's men
D. all of the above are correct
Gender is not only a matter of difference but also a matter of:
A. Power
B. Wealth
C. Prestige
D. all of the above are correct
D. all of the above are correct
For which of the following categories of people in the U.S. is it true that women DO MORE housework than men?
A. people who work for income
B. people who are married
C. people who have children
D. all of the above are correct
A. refers to violations of the law
Crime is a special kind of deviance that:
A. refers to violations of the law
B. involves punishment
C. refers to violations of any of a society's norms
D. always involves a particular person as the offender
A. who does and does not have power
A social-conflict approach claims that WHO a society labels "deviant" depends on:
A. who does and does not have power
B. a society's moral values
C. how often the behavior occurs
D. how harmful the behavior is
D. larceny
Stealing a laptop computer from the study lounge in a college dorm is an example of which of the following criminal offenses?
A. burglary
B. motor vehicle theft
C. armed robbery
D. larceny
C. retribution
Which of the following is the oldest justification for punishing an offender?
A. deterrence
B. societal protection
C. retribution
D. rehabilitation
informal social control
Social control carried out casually by ordinary people through such means as laughter, smiles, and ridicule.
gender role
Expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females.
sexism
The ideology that one sex is superior to the other.
hate crime
A criminal offense committed because of the offender's bias against a race, religion, ethnic group, national origin, or sexual orientation.
feminism
The belief in social, economic, and political equality for women.
organized crime
The work of a group that regulates relations among various criminal enterprises, including prostitution, gambling, and the smuggling and sale of illegal drugs.
crime
A violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties.
deviance
Behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
white-collar crime
Illegal acts committed by affluent, "respectable" individuals in the course of business activities.
degradation ceremony
An aspect of the socialization process within total institutions, in which people are subjected to humiliating rituals.
formal social control
Social control carried out by authorized agents, such as police officers, judges, school administrators, and employers.
victimless crime
a term used by sociologists to describe the willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services.
sexual harassment
Behavior that occurs when work benefits are made contingent on sexual favors, or when touching, lewd comments, or exhibition of pornographic material creates a "hostile environment" in the workplace.
Law enforcement, Court system, Corrections
Name the three entities of the criminal justice system: