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28 terms

Endocrine Hormones

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thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
secreted by: anterior pituitary
function:
- tropic hormone
-stimulates secretion of thyroid hormones
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: overstimulation of thyroid
hyposecretion: understimulation of thyroid
Leptin
secreted by: fat-storing cells
function: controls how hungry and full we feel
dysfunction: possible obesity; other metabolic disorders
testosterone
secreted by: interstitial cells in testes
function: promotes development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: premature sexual development (male); muscle hypertrophy
hyposecretion: lack of sexual development (male)
progesterone
secreted by ovary
function: promotes conditions required for pregnancy
dysfunction:
hyposecretion: sterility
Estrogen
secreted by: ovary
function: promote development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: premature sexual development (female) and infertility
hyposecretion; lack of sexual development (female), infertility, and osteoporosis
insulin
secreted by pancreatic islets
function: promotes glucose entry into all cells, causing a decrease in blood glucose concentration
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: severe hypoglycemia (insulin shock)
hyposecretion: diabetes mellitus
glucagon
secreted by: pancreatic islets
function: stimulates glycogenolysis in liver, causing an increase in blood glucose concentration
dysfunction: uncertain
Epinephrine (Epi)
Norepinephrine (NR)
secreted by adrenal medulla
function: prolong and intensify the sympathetic nervous system response during stress
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: stress effects (adrenaline)
hyposecretion: no significant effect
sex hormones
secreted by adrenal cortex
function: stimulate sexual drive in female but have negligible effects in male
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: premature sexual (androgens) development; masculinization of female
hyposecretion: no significant effect
glucocorticoids: cortisol (hydrocortisone)
secreted by adrenal cortex
function: stimulate gluconeogenesis, causing increase in blood glucose concentration; also have antiinflammatory, antiimmunity, antiallergy effects
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: Cushing syndrome
hyposecretion: Addison disease
mineralocorticoids: aldosterone
secreted by adrenal cortex
function: regulate electrolyte and fluid homeostasis
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: increased water retention
hyposecretion: abnormal water loss (dehydration)
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
secreted by parathyroid
function: stimulates the breakdown of bone; causes an increase in blood calcium concentration
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: possible hypercalcemia
hyposecretion: possible hypocalcemia
thymosin
secreted by thymus
function: promotes development of immune system cells
dysfunction:
hyposecretion: depression of immune system
chorionic gonadotropin, estrogens, progesterone
secreted by the placenta (chorion)
function: promotes conditions required during early pregnancy
dysfunction:
hyposecretion: spontaneous abortion (miscarriage)
melatonin
secreted by pineal gland
function: inhibits tropic hormones that affect the ovaries, may be involved in the body's internal clockand sleep cycle
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: winter depression, sleep disorders, and other possible effects
atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
secreted by the heart atria
function: regulates fluid and electrolyte homeostasis
Ghrelin
secreted by gastrointestinal tract (GI)
function: affects energy balance (metabolism)
dysfunction: possible obesity; increase in hunger and suppression of fat utilization
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
secreted by anterior pituitary
function: tropic hormone that stimulates secretion of adrenal cortex
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: overstimulation of adrenal cortex hormones
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
secreted by anterior pituitary
function: tropic hormone
female: stimulates development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens
male: stimulates seminiferous tubules of testes to grow and produce sperm
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: understimulation of adrenal cortex hormones
hyposecretion: lack of sexual development and sterility
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
secreted by anterior pituitary
function: tropic hormone
Female: stimulates maturation of ovarian follicle and ovum; stimulates secretion of estrogen; triggers ovulation; stimulates development of corpus luteum (luteinization)
male: stimulates interstitial cells to secrete testosterone
dysfunction:
hyposecretion: lack of sexual development and sterility
growth hormone (GH)
secreted by anterior pituitary
functions: stimulates growth in all organs; mobilizes food molecules, causing an increase in blood glucose concentration
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: gigantism (preadult); acromegaly (mature adult)
hyposecretion: dwarfism (pre-adult)
prolactin (lactogenic hormone)
secreted by anterior pituitary
function: stimulates breast development during pregnancy and milk secretion (milk letdown) after pregnancy
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: inappropriate lactation in men or nonnursing women
hyposecretion: insufficient lactation in nursing women
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
secreted by posterior pituitary
function: stimulates retention of water by the kidneys
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: abnormal water retention
hyposecretion: diabetes insipidus
oxytocin (OT)
secreted by posterior pituitary
function: stimulates uterine contractions at the eend of pregnancy; stimulates the release of milk into the breast ducts
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: inappropriate ejection of milk in lactating women
hyposecretion: prolonged difficult labor and delivery (uncertain)
releasing hormones (RHs) (several)
secreted by hypothalamus
function: stimulate the anterior pituitary to release hormones
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: hypersecretion by anterior pituitary
hyposecretion: hyposecretion by anterior pituitary
inhibiting hormones (IHs) (several)
secreted by hypothalamus
function: inhibit the anterior pituitary's secretion of hormones
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: hypersecretion of anterior pituitary
hyposecretion: hyposecretion of anterior pituitary
thyroxine (T4)
triiodothyronine (T3)
secreted by thyroid
function: stimulate the energy metabolism of all cells
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: Grave's disease, hyperthyroidism
hyposecretion: hypothyroidism, cretinism (pre-adult), myxedema (adult), goiter
calcitonin (CT)
secreted by thyroid
function: inhibits the breakdown of bone; causes a decrease in blood calcium concentration
dysfunction:
hypersecretion: possible hypocalcemia
hyposecretion: possible hypercalcemia