37 terms

Chemistry

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Period
The horizontal rows on the periodic table.

Elements in the same row have the same number of electron shells/energy levels.
Family/Group
The vertical columns on the periodic table.

Elements in the same group/family have the same number of valence electrons. (Except Helium which is in Group 8, but only has 2 valence e-)
Metals
Are good conductors of electric current and heat.
-Malleable
-Ductile
-Metallic luster
-Solid at room temperature
Malleable
Capable of being shaped.
Easy to shape or bend.
Ductile
Describes a material that can be pulled out into a long wire.
Alkali Metals
The elements in Group 1A of the periodic table (except Hydrogen).
VIOLENTLY REACT with water, and produce alkaline (basic) substance.
Alkali Earth Metals
The elements in Group 2A of the periodic table.
Shiny, Silvery-white
Very reactive
Transition Metals
Group B elements
Form a bridge between the elements of the left and right sides of the Periodic Table (middle of the table).
-Non-reactive metals.
-Less predictable than other elements.
-Paramagnetic properties
Paramagnetic property
Weak/temporarily induced magnetic field
Need a magnet to become a magnetic
Metalloids
Elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals.
Non-metals
-Brittle when solid
-Dull
-Poor conductors
-Lower melting and boiling points than metals
Halogens
The elements in Group 7A of the periodic table.
-Very reactive
-Poisonous
-Bleaches and disinfectants
Noble Gases
The elements in group 8A of the periodic table.
-Colorless
-Odorless
-Extremely NONREACTIVE
Precipitate
Solid compound produced from 2 liquids during a chemical reaction. Sign of a chemical reaction.
Bubbles
Gas given off during a chemical reaction; may or may not have an odor. Sign of a chemical reaction.
Other Signs of a Chemical Reaction
light, heat, color change, new substance exists
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass cannot be created nor destroyed; Mass can only change forms. The total mass of products equals the total mass of the reactants.
Coefficient
Number in front of a compound's chemical formula telling you how many molecules of that compound are needed.
Subscript
Number written after and BELOW an element in a chemical formula telling you how many of the preceding element are needed for that compound or molecule.
Balanced Equation
Chemical equation where the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products. Produced by changing the coefficients of the compounds.
Chemical Reaction
Chemical change; when substances interact with each other. Original substances are used up.
Chemical Equation
Written representation of a chemical reaction/chemical change; shows all the reactants and products. Always in the form of: Reactants arrow Products.
Chemical Change
Chemical reaction; when substances interact with each other. Original substances are used up.
Physical Change
When a substance changes its phase (changes to a solid, liquid , gas, or plasma) or is modified (size, shape, etc) but remains the same substance.
Compound
Any amount of a chemical combination of 2 or more different atoms.
Molecule
A chemical combination of 2 or more of the same atoms.
Products
Substance(s) existing after a chemical reaction takes place. Found to the right of the arrow.
Reactants
Substances existing before a chemical reaction takes place. Found to the left of the arrow.
Chemical Formula
The symbols and quantities (shown by subscripts) of the atoms needed to make 1 molecule of a substance.
chemical reaction
the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
chemical equation
a representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products
reactants
things that react together (on the left side of the equation)
products
things that are produced (on the right side of the equation)
yields
the arrow in the middle of the equation
coefficient
a small whole number that appears as a factor in front of a formula in a chemical equation
formula equation
a representation of the reactants and products of a chemical reaction by their symbols or formulas
balanced
the amount of atoms on the left of the yield sign are the same as the amount of atoms on the right, Law of Conservation of Mass (mass can't be created or destroyed)
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