Final Exam Study

Donald Hebb
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"... from these Venus brings forth forms with varying lot, and produces the countenance, the voice, the hair of their ancestors."LucretiusSimon (1990) proposed a genetic model for altruism thatimposes a "tax" on the widespread behavior of docility to support a certain level of altruistic actsWhich of the following is considered a New-World monkey:Squirrel monkeyWhich of the following statements is correct?Gregor Mendel developed a theory of genetic inheritance with a systematic study of pea plantsEcological validitySuggest the degree to which any experiment is relevant to real-life situationsCortisol provides negative feedback to down regulate the physiological response to stress. This is a topic most likely studied by:neuroendocrinologistAn example of applied research:Tactile feedback while communicating with a handheld technology device in a military combat zoneThe Coolidge effect has been supported by experimental evidence. This is:True: variety in partners enhances sexual performanceWhich of the following accurately describe a consequence of Phineas Gage's head injury:change in personalityPOMC is a large transcript that can be spliced into smaller proteins such as:adrenocorticotropic hormoneThe study of the contribution to "nature and nurture" to psychological phenomena in part helps us to consider realistic and humane social policies that are informed with empirical dataFulker and Eysenck (1979)The world's human population first reached the 1 billion mark around the year1804Neuropsychology research focuses onthe effects of brain damageComparative psychologystudy the behavior as a function of neuroanatomical differences among different species KEY WORDS: different speciesThere are _________ families of primates.FiveTracts are to nuclei as nerves are togangliaPNS is to CNS as Schwann cells are toOligodendrocytesThe tip of your nose ismedial and anteriorThe myelencephalon isall of the above (the medulla, part of the hindbrain, part of the brain stem)Three major structures in the _________ of the brain are named after colors (red, black, and grey).tegmentumThe hypothalamus and the thalamus compose thediencephalonThe lateral geniculate nuclei, medial geniculate nuclei, and ventral posterior nuclei are allall of the above (diencephalic nuclei, thalamic nuclei, sensory relay nuclei)Between the frontal and parietal lobes is thecentral fissureA major limbic system tract is thefornix F I can't remember F= fornixTogether, the caudate and the putamen compose thestriatumA membrane potential is the difference in electrical charge betweenthe inside and outside of a cellNa+ ions are continuously forced into neurons byboth B and C (their high external concentration, the negative resting potential) KEY WORD: bothAction potentials are produced by theopening of voltage-activated sodium channels KEY WORDS: opening, voltage, sodiumBoth presynaptic facilitation and inhibition are mediated byaxoaxonic synapses Both what? AA = axoaxonicThe release of neurotransmitter molecules from buttons is often triggered byan influx of calcium ionsMetabotropic receptors are linked tosignal proteins and G proteins Meta = GWhich of the following is currently thought to be a valid general principle of synaptic transmission?None of the above NO Valid principles of synaptic transmissionThe enzyme whose function is to deactivate a specific neurotransmitter once it has been released into the synapse isacetylcholinesterase KEY PART: "sterase"Which neurotransmitters are often released from string-of-beads axons?monoamines STRING OF BEADS = monoamines ... it kinda rhymesWhich drug was extracted from the belladonna plant and used by the ancient Greeks for cosmetic purposes?AtropineCocaine and amphetamines in high doses can produce a temporary disorder that is similar toschizophreniaThe reason why radioactive 2-DG is useful for revealing the level of activity of neurons in different parts of the brain is that 2-DGBoth A and C (is absorbed by neurons in relation to their level of activity, is not metabolized by neurons) DG =ACAlpha wave EEG activity is associated withrelaxed wakefulnessWhich gland or glands directly influence the SCL and the SCR?sweat glandsWhich of the following brain lesion techniques is least likely to be associated with damage to the major blood vessels?aspiration lesionsDrugs that do not penetrate the blood brain barrier can be administered to particular neural structuresthrough a sterotaxically positioned cerebral cannula KEY WORD: sterotaxicallyWhich of the following procedures employs labeled antibodies?immunocytochemistry chemistry = employsIP, SC, and IM areroutes of drug administrationThe discovery of conditioned taste aversion challenged theBoth A and B (principle of equipotentiality, belief that temporal contiguity is necessary for conditioning) KEY word: BOTHThe self-stimulation paradigm isan operant conditioning paradigmThe loudness, pitch, and timbre of a sound are directly related to the ________, respectively, of the vibrations that produced it.Amplitude, frequency, and complexity AFC AFC AFC Also, C)amplitudeWhich ossicle is attached to the round window?None of the above NO ossicles attached to round windowThe major auditory projections of the inferior colliculi go to themedial geniculate nuclei KEY WORD: medial_______ are found in _________, which are often located around small protuberances called ________.Taste receptors; taste buds; papillae (TRTBP)Gustatory afferents leave the mouth as part of theAll of the above (facial nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve)Evidence suggests that humans have about _______ different types of olfactory receptors.350The axons of the olfactory receptors run through thecribriform plate to the olfactory bulbs KEY WORD: bulbS (must be plural)Smell and tastecombine to produce the sensation of flavor KEY WORD: flavorAsomatognosia is often associated withBoth B and C (anosognosia, contralateral neglect) KEY WORD: BothThe longest neuron in the human bodyis somatosensory neuron with one end in a toe and the other in the dorsal column nuclei LONGEST NEURON = LONGEST ANSWERWith respect to vision, wavelength to intensity ascolor is to brightness C is for COLOR(& brightness)When the pupils are constricted,all of the aboveThe closer an object is, thenone of the aboveHigh-acuity vision is mediated by thefovea (FO sound)High-acuity vision is mediated bythe photoptic system (FO sound)The brightness of a light depends on itsBoth A and B (intensity, wavelength) BRIGHTNESS IS NOT DEPENDENT ON COLORThe Purkinje effect refers to the fact thatlights in the green-blue portion of the spectrum are brighter than equally intense lights in the yellow-red portion of the spectrum when viewed under dim illumination (KEY WORD: equally) option DSaccades areeye movementsTransduction refers to thetranslation of one form of energy to another KEY WORD: energyThe bleaching of rhodopsin by lighthyperpolarizes rods KEY WORD: hyperThe retina-geniculate-striate system terminates in theboth A and B (striate cortex, primary visual cortex) KEYWORDS: both AND cortexIn humans, the axons of retinal ganglion cells whose cell bodies are in the left temporal hemiretinaproject ipsilaterallyThe parvocellular component of the retina-geniculate-striate system runs through the ______ layers of the lateral geniculate nucleitop 4Magnocellular neurons are particularly responsive tomovement MAGNO = MOVEMENTThe perception of an edge is in effect the perception of acontrast between two adjacent areas of the visual field (KEY WORD: contrast)Mach bands are perceived becausevisual receptors adjacent to an edge on the more intense side receive less lateral inhibition than do receptors farther from that edge, and because visual receptors adjacent to the edge on the less intense side receive more lateral inhibition than do receptors farther from that edge LONGEST OPTIONThe receptive field of a visual neuron is the area of thevisual field within which the suitable visual stimulus can influence the firing of the neuron VISUAL IN QUESTION = VISUAL IN ANSWER (twice) Keyword is visualNeurons of the primary visual cortex that have receptive fields that can be divided into static "on" areas and "off" areas separated by straight edges aresimple cells ON and OFF = simpleThe opponent theory appears to provide the best explanation of color coding at theall of the above OPPONENT THEORY = ALL OF THE ABOVEProsopagnosia has been linked to damage of thefusiform face areaWhich kinds of movements are NOT influenced by sensory feedback?ballistic movementsThe supplementary motor area and the premotor cortex are in thefrontal lobeIn general the various areas of secondary motor cortex are thought toprogram specific patterns of movement KEYWORD: specificNeurons that fire in response to making a particular response, observing somebody else making the response, or just thinking about the response are calledmirror neuronsThe only parts of each motor homunculus to receive somatosensory feedback directly from skin are thehand areasThe effects of damage to the primary motor cortex includeboth A and B (astereognosia, difficulty in moving one part of the body independently of others) Keyword: BOTHRecent fMRI studies have changes the traditional view of the cerebellum by suggesting that in addition to its sensorimotor functions it is involved incontrol and learning of cognitive responses fMRI = longest answerWhich structure is part of a neural loop including the cortex and the basal ganglia?ThalamusIn general, the dorsolateral corticospinal tract controls the muscles of thehands and feetWhich midbrain structure receives visual and auditory information about spatial location?tectumIn contrast to the axons of the descending dorsolateral motor pathways, individual axons of the ventromedial pathways often terminateBoth B and C (in two or more segments, on both sides of the spinal cord)In one class experiment, monkeys could not move their fingers independently after transections of thedorsolateral corticospinal tracts option A = A sucky thing to happenIn classic experiments of Lawrence and Kuypers, the descending motor tracts of monkeys were transected. The results of these experiments suggest that the function of the ventromedial pathways is the control ofBoth A and B (posture, movements of the body core and associated arm movements) Keyword: BOTHAll of the motor neurons that innervate the fibers of a single muscle are called itsmotor poolMuscles are protected from damage caused by excessive contraction byGolgi tendon organs Keyword: tendonMuscle spindles provide the CNS with information about the musclelengthDuring a stretch reflex, the extrafusal motor neuron is excited directly by thespindle afferent neuron Keyword: spindleWhich of the following helps distribute the work between different motor neurons of a muscle's motor poolrecurrent collateral inhibition Distribute work = three wordsThe results of the treadmill experiment by Grillner (1985) suggest that part of the central sensorimotor program for walking is thespinal cordThe fact that the same basic movement can be carried out in different ways involving different muscles is calledmotor equivalenceA highly skills typist can type 120 words per minute only becauseall of the aboveTheories of sensorimotor learning emphasize two kinds of learning-related changes in sensorimotor programs:chunking and transferring much of the control of the response to lower levels of the nervous system (CHUNKING AND TRANSFERRING)The most commonly employed test of short-term verbal memory is thedigit-span testExplicit memories for the particular events or experiences of one's life are _________ memoriesepisodicOne major difference between the amnesia associated with advanced Korsakoff's syndrome and that associated with bilateral medial temporal lobe damage is that patients with Korsakoff's syndrome havea retrograde amnesia that can extend back into childhood KEY word: childhoodIn early studies of medial-temporal-lobe amnesia in monkeys, the cortex underlying the hippocampus and amygdala was always damaged because the lesions weremade by aspirationBilateral lesions of the medial temporal cortex that do not damage the hippocampus or amygdala producemajor object recognition deficits in both rats and monkeys Key word: MajorHippocampal cells that become active only when the subject is in particular locations are calledplace cellsThe amygdala appears to be involved in the __________ component of memory, whereas the cerebellum appears to be involved in the _____________ component.emotional; sensorimotorLong-term potentiation has been most frequently studied in thehippocampusAs a consequence of digestion, three different forms of energy are delivered to the body:lipids, amino acids, and glucoseThe three phases of energy metabolism are, in sequence,cephalic, absorptive, and fasting (CAF)The transition between the absorptive and fasting phase occurs whenthe body stops deriving its energy from the fuels still circulating in the blood from the previous meal (KEY WORDS: the body stops)Negative feedback systems in the body tend to maintainhomeostasisInjections of insulintrigger eating only if the doses are large enough to produce reductions in blood glucose that are greater than those that would normally occur under typical free-feeding conditions (LONGEST OPTION)Most humans have a fondness for _________ tastesall of the aboveRats that have lived for several weeks with access to only a single laboratory chow that is devoid of thiaminewill often learn to prefer the taste of a new diet that contains thiamine (KEY WORD: diet)Small amounts of food eaten prior to a meal _____________ hunger. This is called ________________.increase; the appetizer effect_____________ encourages the consumption of a varied dietsensory-specific satietyWhich of the following statements is true? (QUESTION ABOUT: sperm cells and chromosomes)None of the above is trueSteroid hormonesall of the aboveThe three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones areprogestins, estrogens, and androgens (PEA) (D)Which hormone is released by the testes but not by the ovaries?None of the aboveAlthough the pituitary is often referred to as the master gland, strictly speaking the master gland is theanterior pituitaryWhich of the following statements is true??A male pituitary transplanted into a female displays a cyclic pattern of hormone release (C) KEY WORDS: a maleBoth follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone aregonadotropins (one word)In the absence of Sry protein, thecortex of a primordial gonad develops into an ovary KEY WORDS: cortex AND ovaryWhich of the following are likely to develop female internal reproductive ducts?both A and B (gonadectomized female fetuses, gonadectomized male fetuses) Key word: BOTHWhich of the following male structures develops from the same female tissue as do the labia major?scrotumThe aromatization hypothesis is thatestradiol created in the brains of developing females from testosterone feminizes their brain (KEY WORDS: estradiol AND females)Ear wigglingis a proceptive behavior in female rats (shortest answer)Individuals with androgenic insensitivity syndrome do not develop normal internal female reproductive ducts because theirtestes release Müllerian-inhibiting substanceOrchidectomyreduces the recidivism rate of sex offendersTestosterone injections administered to healthy males often increasenone of the aboveThe following findings suggests that the sex drive of women is influenced by testosterone:all of the aboveWith respect to human sexual behavior, the __________ is thought to control the most complex aspects.cortexEstrus can be induced in ovariectomized female rats by microinjections of estradiol and progesterone in theventromedial nucleusCastration of bisexual malesBoth A and B Key word: BOTHSexual attraction developsbefore the onset of puberty (KEYWORD: before)Evidence suggests that the effects of large bilateral VMH lesions on eating are, in part, caused by damage to the ____________ or its connectionsparaventricular nucleiHuman patients who have had their stomachs surgically removed eatcontinue to maintain their body weights by eating more meals of smaller sizeNeuropeptide Y, galanin, orexin A, and ghrelin arehunger peptidesPeople with _________ act as if they are starvingPrader-Willi SyndromeCultural practices that promote obesity include the practice ofall of the above (cultural obesity = eat ALL the food)Ob/ob miceall of the above. (Ob/ob =10/10 =ALL)Leptin has proven effective in the treatment of obesity inthose rare cases who are homozygous for the mutant ob geneSome drugs can be effectively administered through mucous membranes. One such drug iscocaineIndividuals who suffer drug withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking a drug are said to bephysically dependent (KEY WORD: physically)A problem faced by theories of drug conditioning is predictingthe direction of conditioned effectsA hangover is amild alcohol withdrawal syndromeAccording to Koob and Volkow (2010), a significant neurotransmitter that influences the craving stage is ___________, which has been identified in pathways that project from frontal regions and the ___________ to the ventral striatum.glutamate, basolateral amygdala (G;BA)Cocaine sprees are the product of the interaction between the high positive-incentive value of cocaine and the rapid development oftoleranceWhich of the following opiates is an analgesic?Both A and B (KEY WORD: both)Examining postmortem brains of individuals with schizophrenia, ____________ levels of _________ have been detected in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus compared to controls (Goff & Coyle, 2001).lower, glutamateMany early studies of intracranial self-stimulation focused on the stimulation of thelateral hypothalamus or septumMany self-stimulation sitesare part of the mesotelencephalic dopamine system (LONGEST)The anticipated pleasure associated with an action is its _________________, whereas the actual pleasure experienced is its _________________.positive incentive value; hedonic valueMany researchers believe that a major cause of drug relapse isall of the above (major relapse = ALL things wrong)Much of what we believe about the biopsychology of drug addiction is based on the study of drug self-administration in laboratory animals, but there is a major concern:Both B and C Be and Cause = there is major concern BeCauseEndocrine glands are ductless glands; they releasehormones into the circulatory system KEY WORD; circulatory