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Biology Fall Final Exam 2017
Terms in this set (76)
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body;
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes;
monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
thin, flexible barrier around a cell, regulates what enters and leaves the cell
characteristic of a cell membrane which allows some molecules to pass through but not others
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell, small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein
a cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another
a net-like structure in the cytoplasm of animal cells (especially in those cells that produce secretions)
powerhouse of the cell, produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar(Cellular respiration)
an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane."
a cellulose structure surrounding the cell membrane of a plant cell
a fluid storage structure; small in animal cells, usually large in plant cells
any of various small particles in the cytoplasm of the cells of plants and some animals containing pigments or starch or oil or protein
plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments
types of cells that contain a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
a unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei and other organelles
having or consisting of a single cell
consisting of many cells
a part of an organism consisting of many cells having a similar structure and function
a structure made up of different kinds of tissues that performs specific functions
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by in many ways; the "same state"
a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.
any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt, pH less than 7
any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water; pH greater than 7
the organic chemical reactions in a cell or organism that are necessary for life
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
diffusion of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration of water to a place of lower concentration of water until the concentration on both sides is equal
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
a term referring to a relatively high amount of solute in a solution. usually compared to the inside solute concentration of cells
a term referring to a relatively low amount of solute in a solution usually comparing to the inside solute concentration of a cell
a term referring to the relatively "same" solute conentration in a solutiona as usually compared to the inside solute concentration of a cell
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient
the energy required to bring products and reactants together to form products in a chemical reaction.
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
the substance that is acted upon by an enzyme (the reactant or reactants)
The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds.
weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from glucose moelcules
process that requires oxygen
metabolic process that does not require oxygen
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
the production of living organisms from other living organisms
a hypothetical organic phenomenon by which living organisms are created from nonliving matter
Electron Transport Chain
A group of compounds that pass electron from one to another via redox reactions coupled with the transfer of proton across a membrane to create a proton gradient that drives ATP synthesis.
Kreb's cycle or citric cycle
the sequence of reactions by which most living cells generate energy during the process of aerobic respiration. It takes place in the mitochondria, consuming oxygen, producing carbon dioxide and water as waste products, and converting ADP to energy-rich ATP.
DNA carries the instructions to make which macro molecule?
It is made up of sub units
How is a macro molecule constructed?
What is the sub unit of a macro molecule called?
What is a monomer of proteins?
Which macro molecule directs the function of the cell?
To provide the body with insulation
What is the function of lipids?
Lipids and Carbohydrates
Which organic molecules supply energy to cells?
to provide quick energy release
What is the function of a carbohydrate?
to synthesize proteins
What is the function of ribosomes?
both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have plasma membranes that are composed of proteins and lipids
What is the relationship between cells and the plasma membrane?
it is found in nucleic acids
Why is nitrogen important to all living things?
What class of macromolecule is amylase?
a bio catalyst that breaks starch into simple sugar molecules in the pancreas
What is amylase?
Which organic compounds necessary for life are formed by a sugar bonded to a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base?
What is being shown?
It must be converted into glucose
What process must occur for energy to be derived from starch?
What is an example of a monosaccharide, or simple sugar?
Which is a building block for a lipid?
The complex, three dimensional structure of a protein is sensitive to heat because the structure is maintained by what kind of bond?
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