31 terms

AP World Midterm Exam

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egalitarian
promoting social equality
bureaucracy
a hierarchy of specialized officials administering the policies of an institution, especially a government
civil service system
a gov't bureaucracy whose posts are awarded based on competitive exams
centralized
power concentrated in the center, especially political power concentrated in the hands of one leader/ emperor or executive body
decentralized
power dispersed among many different points, especially political power distributed among many different nobles/landowners/leaders/regions
scholar gentry
an aristocratic Chinese social class of landowning Confucian officials (Song China)
aristocrat
a member of a social class thought to be superior often by virtue of the family they were born into; aristocrats often possess special political, religious, and economic privileges, especially owning of large amounts of land
ideology
an overall system of beliefs, values, and goals that makes up the worldview of an individual or a group, especially refers to religious, political, economic, and social idea systems
institution
an important, formal organization of individuals in a civilization working for a common purpose, especially gov't, churches, universities and corporations
hierarchy
a ranking system of individuals of a few with elite standing and more with lesser standing
feudalism
a decentralized socio - political organization created by nobles exchanging land for formal oaths of service and protection; especially with strong militaristic values and an elite class of specialized warriors
orthodox
conforming to the central, authoritative beliefs, especially with regard to religion
consolidate (as in territory)
to join together securely into one whole
assimilate ( as in peoples)
to absorb a group into a culture; a group that is assimilated adopts many of the traits of another culture
manufacturing
the making of goods by manual labor or by machinery
diffusion
the spreading of features from one culture to another, as in the spread of religions or technologies
coercive labor system
an institution in which workers are compelled to work by force, intimidation, or authority, often against their will
legitimize
to make lawful, to make acceptable, or to justify
commercial
engaged in trade or pertaining to trade and the exchange of goods and services ( a commercial class is involved directly (a merchant) or indirectly (a banker) in trade
demographic
an important characteristic or statistic of a human population, as in death rate, migration, religious or racial composition
mystical
a belief system in which there is a direct connection between a person's soul and God or the ultimate reality; especially a system which disregards orthodox beliefs in favor or a more intuitive, possibly ecstatic, religious experience
rationalism
reliance on the human ability to reason as the best guide for belief and action
Key Concept 1.1
Throughout the Paleolithic era, humans developed sophisticated technologies and adapted to different geographical environments as they migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australasia, and the Americas.
Key Concept 1.2
Beginning about 10,000 years ago, some human communities settled down and practiced agriculture, while others pursued hunter-forager or pastoralist lifestyles. Both lifestyles produced more abundant food, transforming human life.
Key Concept 1.3
The appearance of the first urban societies 5,000 years ago laid the foundations for the development of complex civilizations. These states had greater resources than earlier societies and needed increasingly more resources. This led to a transition from city-states to empires. Empires used elements of culture, like religion and architecture, to unite populations.
Key Concept 2.1
As states and empires increased in size and contacts between regions intensified, human communities transformed their religious, and philosophical beliefs and practices, as Judaism and Hinduism were further developed and Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism, Greco-Roman philosophy, and Christianity developed.
Key Concept 2.2
As the early states and empires grew in number, size, and population, they frequently competed for resources and came into conflict with one another. Social hierarchies reinforced the political authority of imperial rulers, Eventually, Indian, Roman, and Chinese empires experiences difficulties that led to their decline.
Key Concept 2.3
With the organization of large-scale empires, trans regional trade intensified, leading to the creation of extensive networks of commercial and cultural exchange like the Eurasian Silk Roads, the Trans-Saharan caravan routes, and the Indian Ocean sea lanes. Crops, disease, technologies, and religions spread along the trade routes.
Key Concept 3.1
New networks of human interaction within and across regions developed, and existing networks intensified. New techniques of imperial administration developed, as did religions. New migration of people like the Bantu, Arabs, Mongols, and Scandinavians spread technologies, disease. and language.
Key Concept 3.2
In some areas, imperial states were reconstituted after earlier imperial collapse. In other areas, new states developed or imperial systems developed for the first time. Contacts and conflicts between empires encourage technological and cultural spread.
Key Concept 3.3
Changes in trade networks resulted from increasing productive capacity, and those changes stimulated production. Those was especially true in agriculture and artisan production. Fluctuations in production impacted the rise and fall of cities as well as socials structures and gender roles.
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