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Mr Reed's Test Study Guide

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Government of Mali and Ghana
Ghana became known for its rich culture, wealth, organization, and power
Mali had Mansa Musa who was the richest man ever
Mines of Mali and Ghana
Ghana had gold mines and only some salt mines but they got most of their salt through trade while Mali had salt and gold mines
Geographical advantages of the Kingdom of Mali
Trans-Saharan trade routes running through it
Protective barriers for robbers and had an army protect all their land
Rivers provided water and provided land or farming
It had natural resources such as the gold and salt mines which were the most resourceful in that Mali region
Important accomplishments of Mansa Musa
He put Mosques up along the way to the holy trip to Mecca
He helped to build the Timbuktu
Put himself on the map
Built university to bring scholars
Was a big follower of Islam
Mansa Musa's effects of his Hajj
He disrupted the economy with how much money he gave people; He built Mosques on this travels
The Trans-Saharan Trade routes
The trans-Saharan route was vital in linking this regional trade with the Mediterranean. Cities like Timbuktu and Gao were like ports on the shore of the Sahara receiving and dispensing goods through their markets, becoming very prosperous in the process

Ghana was the "toll booth" in the route. They controlled the land and had military forces and had an extremely complex empire
Items of the Trans-Saharan Trade
Salt in Taghaza on the border of the kingdom and exchanged these commodities for gold, copper and slaves, much of which came from countries further to the south of the kingdom of Mali.
Affect of Trans-Saharan Trade
Trade also allowed the distribution of crafts, skills and knowledge, as well as the spread of Islam
Hajj
Holy pilgrimage to the Mecca
Shahada
Pledging the Faith
Salat
Ritual Prayer
Sawm
Fasting during Ramadan
Zakat
Charity to the Poor
Indian Ocean Trade Network
All the regions that are along the Indian ocean that are connect through the trade; The city-states and larger political units encircling the Indian ocean
Cultural diffusion
The spread of cultural beliefs and social activities from one group to another
Dhow
Boats that made travel on the Indian Ocean Trade Network possible
Define The Crusades
They were holy wars fought between Christians in Europe and Muslims in the Middle East
Define "Camels of the Ocean"
Like camels they were strong and used for trade. Camels cross the Sahara just like the dhows cross the Indian Ocean. Each made trade possible
Define Great Zimbabwe
A city in the center of a high plateau in South Africa; The location of the largest stone structure built in sub Saharan Africa before 1500
What are the regions on the Indian Ocean Trade Network
South Africa, East Africa, southwest Asia, south Asia, south east Asia, east Asia
Who was the person responsible for the call of a Crusade
Pope Urban II
What were the reasons to go on the Crusades
The desire to take control of Jerusalem away from Muslims, the chance to travel and make money
What three regions of the world does the Indian Ocean border?
East Africa, Arabia, and western India
Examples of cultural diffusion that took place through the Indian Ocean Trade network
Interior regions supplying goods to the coastal regions
Much intermarriage among the different coasts took place
What are three examples of cultural diffusion that Ibn Battuta come across?
The sultan spoke his native Somali in addition to a little Arabic; The people encountered may have already begun to speak the creole mixture that later came to be called Swahili a bantu language that incorporated many words from Arabic; The city had a Mosque
Why don't we know as much about Great Zimbabwe as we do the other regions that were served by the Indian Ocean Trade Network?
The people who lived there did not keep written records, archeological finds provide our only information about logical religion. Also, we don't know why it declined dramatically but we don't know why
What are examples of archeological proof we have that supports the people of Great Zimbabwe not being Muslims?
They spoke Zimbabwe and not arabic; The walls of great Zimbabwe do not resemble any Islamic buildings; Great Zimbabwe was built by the local people not by the Arabic speaking people
What archaeological items discovered in the "hoard" help to prove that Great Zimbabwe was making contact with other regions of the world?
The hoard included pieces of broken green from the Chinese, this shows the sites residents traded with the coastal towns and were part of existing trade networks
What reason do historian give for both Kilwa and Great Zimbabwe declining at the time of the arrival of European powers?
When the Portugese arrived on the East African Coast after 1500 with Kilwa and the great Zimbabwe site had already declined dramatically but we do not know why
What is a lateen sail?
Triangular sail on a ship
Arab goods
Glass and textiles
African goods
Ivory and gold
Indian goods
Spices
Chinese goods
Pepper, silk, and porcelain
Technological Advances of Ghana
Salt for preserving, weapons and tools for use and trade
Economic Prosperity of Ghana
Gold-salt trade and taxation
Political Structure of Ghana and Mali
Empire ruled by the king
Social Structure of Ghana
Family and the people in it and the griots
Religious Beliefs of Ghana and Mali
Islam - believed in a main or high god
Decline and Fall of the kingdom of Ghana
Muslim invader interested in economic and religious aspects; Loss of food because of drought; Turmoil within the empire
Ibn Battuta
Mali was visited during the 17th century by the travel writer Ibn Battuta who recorded the customs of the country at some length
Importance of learning in Timbuktu
Timbuktu became a major centre of Islamic culture and learning
Influence of Islam in Timbuktu
Musa wanted to convert more people over to the Islamic faith so he developed Timbuktu into a major cultural centre and built a new Great Mosque
The Tuareg
They were the invaders that undid Mali from the north who probed at its borders, especially Timbuktu
Songhai Dynasty
Mali fell which was the rise of the Songhai empire and this effectively marked the end of Mali's power. Yet, while the northern and eastern parts of Mali were lost to Songhai, in the west and south the kingdom continued for almost two more centuries
What was the Great Schism?
The division of the Christianity into Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox sects.
What happened after the Crusades?
After the Crusades trade between European and Middle Eastern powers were expanded.
What was life like on the manor?
A small village that formed around the lords castle which would also include the local church. Farms would then spread out from there which would be worked by the peasants.
What was the power and influence of the church?
Church has power over the king and everyone else
How did feudalism begin?
Repeated invasions created a need for protection
Feudalism
The basic government and society inn Europe during the middle ages was based around this
Urbanization
The social process whereby cities grow and societies
Byzantine Emperor
Asked the Christians in Europe to help protect his empire from the Turks
Vassal
Noble who entered into a contract with a lord or monarch which could include mutual protection and the granting of land (fief).
Serf
An agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate or a peasant
Why was running away from the manor risky for a serf?
No where to go, bandits in the woods, not safe, if caught returned and tortured by the Lord
Define cerealization
Agricultural innovations that happened in Medieval Europe
King
Appointed to control the people
Lords
Appointed for protection and handled territory; Supplied soldiers
Knights
They protected the kingdom; Lord's vassals