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Chapter 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe
World History Patterns of Interaction
Terms in this set (64)
The son of Charles V was born and educated in Spain. He ruled Spain until his death.
*Built a huge empire
*Fought against the Ottoman Empire
*Sent the Spanish Armada to punish Protestant England.
Englands form of government: A king or queen with complete authority over the government and people in a kingdom.
** Divine Right
the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on Earth
Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614)
This artist was the artist of Philip IV's court in the 17th century. He is known for his realistic portraits of the royal family in Spain's Golden Age.
published in 1605; "birth of the modern European novel"; author Miguel de Cervantes, wrote about a poor Spanish nobleman who went a little crazy after reading too many books about heroic knights
**Causes of the weakening of the Spanish Empire
1) Inflation and Taxes
2) Making Spains Enemies Rich - Increased exports, huge debt
3) The Dutch Revolt
revolting against crack down on catholicism, the Dutch rebelled against Phillip II because he tried to impose Catholicism in the Netherlands; the Dutch were also motivated by economic factors, since they believed they were being unfairly taxed
Rembrandt van Rijn
unique, short lived, only in netherlands, Dutch painter, who painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants and used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus. Famous paining: The Night Watch
Dutch painter renowned for his use of light and painted everyday scenes (1632-1675)
Dutch Trading Empire
The Dutch system extending into Asia with fortified towns and factories, warships on patrol, and monopoly control of a limited number of products.
Causes and Effects of Absolutism
1) Religious and territorial conflicts created fear and uncertainty.
2) The growth of armies to deal with conflicts caused rulers to raise taxes to pay troops.
3) Heavy taxes led to additional unrest and peasant revolts.
1)Rulers regulated eligious worship and social gatherings to control the spread of ideas.
2)Rulers increased the size of their courts to appear more powerfl.
3)Rulers created more bereacracies to control their countries economies.
Question: What is the significance of England's defeat of the Armada?
Ended Spain's domination of the Atlantic
Question: Why did the Dutch revolt against Spain?
Philip raised taxes and took steps to crush Protestantism. They revolted and to punish them Philip executed 1,500 Protestants. They continued to fight.
**Question: Why did absolute monarchs believe that they were justified in exercising absolute power?
...Because they believed in divine right - God created monarchy and monarch acted as God's representative.
**Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
King Louis XIII was a weak ruler and Richelieu filled the void, more or less running the empire via his advice to the king. A clever politician and strategist, Richelieu expanded royal power, punished dissent harshly, and built France into a great European power
king of France from 1610 to 1643 who relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu (1601-1643)
the idea that nothing can ever be known for certain
king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715); Was 4 year old boy when his reign started; Boaste "I am the state; Was called "The Sun King".
(1533-1592) The finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay.
(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical. Famous for saying "I think, therefore I am"
French government agents who collected taxes and administered justice.
Jean Baptiste Colbert
This mercantilist economist was the financial advisor to Louis XIV
**Palace of Versailles
a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles
Richelieu's successor regarding centralization in France, ruled France during Louis XIV's childhood
War of the Spanish Succession
(1701-1713) war fought over the Spanish throne; Louis XIV wanted it for his son and fought a war against the Dutch, English, and the Holy Roman Empire to gain the throne for France. , (1701-1713) war fought over the Spanish throne; Louis XIV wanted it for his son and fought a war against the Dutch, English, and the Holy Roman Empire to gain the throne for France. Ended at Utrecht in 1713; The big winner in the war was Great Britain.
Question: What impact did the French religious wars have on French thinkers?
What they saw turned them toward skepticism (the idea that nothing can ever be known for certain).
Question: How did Colbert intend to stimulate economic growth in France?
He believed in the theory of mercantilism. He tried to make France self-sufficient by manufacturing everything they needed.
Question: What was the result of the War of the Spanish Succession?
The big winner in the war was Great Britian. They took Gibraltar and were given permission to send enslaved Africans to Spain's American colonies.
**Thirty years' war
A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. Wars ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.
1)Bohemian Protestants revolt
4)Peace of Westphalia
**Peace of Westphalia
Ended Thirty Years War, its consequences weakened the Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria, strengthened France by awarding it German Territory, ended religious warfare in Europe, developed the sovereign states system
This was the first woman monarch to rule in modern Central Europe in 1740. She was the eldest daughter of Charles VI. She had to fight to keep control of her empire; Eldest daughter of Charles VI, heir to Austria; Mother of Marie Antoinette, had to fight off Prussia as soon as she ascended to the throne
**Frederick the Great
King of Prussia (1740-1786). Successful in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) and the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), he brought Prussia great military prestige in Europe. He followed his fathers military policies and encouraged religious toleration and legal reforms.
War of Austrian Succession
A group of several related conflicts involving most of the states of Europe that were triggered by the death of the Emperor Charles VI and the accession of his daughter Maria Theresa in 1740 to the Austrian throne.
Seven years war
Fought both in continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in India and North America, a conflict in Europe, North America, and India, lasting from 1756 to 1763, in which the forces of Britain and Prussia battled those of Austria, France, Russia, and other countries.
**Question: What were the major conflicts in the Thirty Years' War?
religion, territory and power among European ruling families.
Question: What steps did the Austrian Hapsburgs take towards becoming absolute monarchs?
They centralized the government and created an army.
Question: What countries were allies during the Seven Years' War?
Austria, France, Russia and others were allied against Britain and Prussia.
Ivan the Terrible
(1533-1584) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia. Killed his son.
a landowning noble of Russia
Time of Troubles
Early 17th-century period of boyar efforts to regain power and foreign invasion after the death of Ivan IV without an heir; ended with the selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg. (p. 552)
policy of Peter the Great. Adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture
Question: What were some of the ways that Peter tried to westernize Russia?
1) introduced potatoes, which became the staple of the Russian diet.
2)started Russia's first newspaper and edited it's first issue himself.
3)raised women's status by having them attend social gatherings.
4)ordered the nobles to give up their traditional clothes for Western fashions.
5)advanced education by opening a school of navigation and introducing schools for the arts and sciences.
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweeden
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which he was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649; Son of James I.
the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625); Cousin of Elizabeth I.
Petition of Right
Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land, 1628. Signed by Charles I. No imprisonment without due cause; no taxes levied without Parliament's consent; soldiers not housed in private homes; no martial law during peace time.
**English Civil War
Charles I tried to advocate the divine right of kings and bring more absolutist policies to England. He was also seen as bringing too much Catholic influence to the Church of England. War broke out between Parliament's supporters(Roundheads)and the kings's supporters(Cavaliers). Later Charles I was tried and executed in 1649 as a"tyrant,traitor,murderer,and public enemy". Oliver Cromwell,leader of military,ruled England as "Lord Protector" until 1658.
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator. Established Commonwealth; Drafted a Constitution; Put down a rebellion in Ireland;
(1660→) after Cromwell's government collapsed, a new Parliament was selected and Charles II ruled and restored the monarchy
The idea that no person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime
This was the king that took the throne during the Restoration and peacefully had agreements with the Parliament until he made secret agreements with Louis XIV to relax the laws against the English Catholics and eventually a Catholic became the next king
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
This was the "revolution" that replaced James II with William and Mary that also recognized the supremacy of the Parliament with minimum bloodshed
form of government in which the monarch's powers are limited by a constitution
Bill of Rights of 1689
Commenced as a law during the reign of William and Mary, affirming Parliament's right to make laws and levy taxes and making it impossible for kings to oppose or do without Parliament by stipulating that standing armies could be raised only with the consent of Parliament. Allowed citizens to petition the sovereign, keep arms, have a jury trial, and not be subject to excessive bail. Kings could not interfere with the elections of Parliament by the people, and the Bill of Rights laid the foundation for a constitutional monarchy.
persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers
Question: What rights were guaranteed by the Habeus Corpus Act?
1) The right to obtain a writ or document ordering that the prisinor be braught before a judge to specify the charges against the prisoner.
Habeas Corpus act
1679 Parliamentary measure protecting people from arbitrary arrest and unfair imprisonment. Latin for "you shall have the body", provided that anyone who was arrested could obtain an order demanding to be brought before a judge within a specified period of time, the judge decided whether the prisoner would be released or charged and tried for a crime, protected individuals against arbitrary arrest and imprisonment
**Central vs Western Europe
*Central's economy weaker than Western
*Serfs could not gain freedom
*Landowning nobles blocked strong kings
*Ottoman empire began to decline
*Holy Roman Empire lost its power
**Changes in English government
England became a constitutional state. England's government sprang from a civil war that resulted in shared authority between the king and other representatives.
a European royal line that ruled in France (from 1589-1793) and Spain and Naples and Sicily
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