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195 terms

Ethics

Ethics
STUDY
PLAY
The idea that different cultures have different beliefs about morality is a recent discovery that depended on the work of modern anthropologists
false
The purpose of the quotation from William Graham Sumner on p. 16 is to
support the idea that moral rules vary from culture to culture
The view that there is no such thing as universal truth in ethics, but that there are only various cultural codes is called
cultural relativism
The five propositions listed on p. 16 are all mutually consistent with each other—i.e., if one is true, then they all must be true or if one is false, then they all must be false, because they each are saying basically the same thing.
false
Cultural relativists believe that no claims about morality are true or false, even within cultural groups—it's all up to the individual to decide for him or herself.
Answer
false
The purpose of the cultural differences argument is to
support cultural relativism
The cultural differences argument is valid
false
The cultural differnces argument provides good reason to believe its conclusion
false
The cultural differences argument is sound
false
The purpose of Rachels' discussion of the flat earth argument on p. 16 is to
show why the cultural differences argument is invalid
According to Rachels, if cultural relativism is true, then we cannot say that a society that respects free speech is better than one that doesn't.
true
According to Rachels, someone who believes in cultural relativism cannot say that, because we now allow greater equality for women, our society is better today than it was in the past, because that would be evaluating the past culture by the standards of our present culture.
true
Which of the following are suggested by James Rachels as moral beliefs that are shared by all cultures
prohibitions against lying
Which of the following does Rachels offer as a reason that people often think there is more disagreement among cultures than there really is about matters of morality
look up
Which of the following does Rachels offer as something we can learn from cultural relativism
that it is important to keep an open mind
Ethical subjectivism is the belief that
moral opinions are based on our feelings and nothing more
According to an ethical subjectivist, when a person says claims that capital punishment is morally wrong, they are
expressing their feelings but not stating a fact
According to James Rachels, any claim can count as a reason in support of any judgment.
false
When James Rachels says that moral truths are "truths of reason" he means that
a claim about morality is true if it is backed up by better reasons than the alternatives
Rachels believes that because there are no scientific proofs available in ethics then ethical claims cannot be adequately proven.
false
Rachels believes that because there are no scientific proofs available in ethics then ethical claims cannot be adequately proven.
true
In popular thinking, morality and religion are seen as very closely related, even inseparable.
true
Which of the following does Rachels offer as a reason for the belief that ethics and religion are closely connected:
religious beliefs support the view that the universe is meaningful
The view that what is right is what is commanded by God and what is wrong is what is forbidden by God is called
The view that what is right is what is commanded by God and what is wrong is what is forbidden by God is called
Which of the following does Rachels present as a strength of the divine command theory of ethics
look up
Socrates presents a criticism of the divine command theory in which of the following dialogues of Plato
the Euthyphro
Socrates' criticism of the divine command theory is that it leads to a troubling dilemma.
true
According to Socrates, one interpretation of the divine command theory is that right conduct is right because God commands it.
true
If right and wrong are based only on what God commands, then morality would be:
arbitrary
According to Socrates, one interpretation of the divine command theory is that God commands us to do certain things because they are right.
true
If God commands an action because it is right, then there is no real basis for morality; morality is arbitrary.
false
To say that God's commands are morally arbitrary is to say:
God creates the reasons for his commands
Under the Divine Command Theory of ethics, there can be no genuine doubt as to what God has commanded.
false
If we interpret the Divine Command theory as saying that God commands certain things because they are right
we must acknowledge a standard independent of God's will
Thomas Aquinas was a believer in the Divine Command theory of ethics
false
In the history of Christianity the dominant theory of ethics has been the Divine Command Theory
false
Aristotle believed that the question "what is it for" could be asked of
anything in nature
The term "anthropocentric" means
human-centered
Aristotle's world-view was not very congenial to Christianity
false
Natural law theory asserts which of the following:
the world is in harmony when things serve their proper purposes
A strength of Natural Law Theory is that its conclusions are always relatively non-controversial
false
According to Natural Law Theory, the religious believer has special access to moral truth
false
Which of the following does Rachels offer as a reason for believing that there might not be distinctively religious positions on major moral issues
look up
Rachels argues that religious beliefs don't have any importance for moral issues.
false
Rachels believes that religion and ethics really just boil down to the same subject.
false
John Arthur believes which of the following
look up
Arthur believes that for religion to provide moral guidance, we must first do which of the following
look up
Arthur believes that looking to revelation provides a short-cut to moral understanding.
false
F.C. Copleston was an advocate of which of the following
the view that morality is grounded in God
Bertrand Russell was a proponent of the divine command theory of ethics
false
Psychological egoism asserts which of the following
people in fact pursue their own interests alone
Psychological egoism is saying basically the same thing as ethical egoism
false
Which of the following is true of the relationship between psychological egoism and ethics, according to Rachels
if psychological egoism is true, then that ethics would be pointless
The story about Raoul Wallenberg is offered to do which of the following
challenge psychological egoism
Rachels believes that the "argument that we always do what we want to do" is a sound argument—i.e., its premise is true and the conclusion follows from that premise.
false
Abraham Lincoln believed that people always do what makes them feel good.
true
The "strategy of reinterpreting motives" is used to do which of the following
support psychological egoism by showing that our motives are really self-interested
Which of the following does Rachels offer as a reason that so many people are attracted to psychological egoism
look up
Ethical egoism asserts which of the following
people ought to pursue their own interests exclusivey
Ethical egoism says that a person should pursue their long-term interests, not their short-term interests.
true
Ethical egoism does not say that a person should avoid actions that help other people.
true
The argument that each of us knows our own interests better than other people know them is offered to do which of the following
support ethical egoism
Ethical egoists argue against altruistic behavior on the basis that
look up
Ayn Rand was a prominent ethical egoist.
true
According to Ayn Rand, the ethics of altruism denies the value of the individual by promoting self-sacrifice.
true
Rachels criticizes the argument in support of ethical egoism on p. 72 on the basis that
it asserts that we have only two options and ignores a middle ground between them
Thomas Hobbes argued that ethical egoism actually supports a moral principle just like the Golden Rule
true
Rachels believes that Kurt Baier's argument that ethical egoism is logically inconsistent is not as convincing as it first seems.
true
What Rachels calls the "principle of equal treatment" is put forth to do which of the following
undermine ethical egoism by showing that there's no basis for giving ourselves special treatment
According to Rachels, treating people in the same way means making sure that everyone ends up with the same outcome.
false
Immanuel Kant believed that some rules may be broken as long as the results will justify breaking the rule
false
Kant based his ethical views on theological considerations
false
An "ought" statement of the form, "If you want X, then you ought to do Y" is called
a hypothetical imperative
For Kant, moral obligations do not depend on us having particular desires
true
For Kant, categorical "oughts" have force because we have
reason
The rule or principle a person is following when they do an act is called
The maxim of the act
Kant believed which of the following about lying
It is wrong under all circumstances
Elizabeth Anscombe criticizes the Categorical Imperative on the basis that
It is useless without some guidance on how to form moral rules
What Rachels calls the "case of the inquiring murderer" is offered to do which of the following
Show that the categorical imperative is too absolute
Peter Geech believed that genuine conflicts between moral rules never actually occur.
true
Rachels believes that the basic insight of Kant's ethics is the following
Valid moral reasons are binding on all people at all times
O'Neill agrees with those who characterize Kant's ethics as being difficult to understand and excessively demanding.
false
Kant gives more than one different version of his Supreme Principle of Morality
Answer
true
For Kant, the maxim of an act is the principle or policy one follows when deciding on an action.
true
For Kant, what makes an action moral or immoral are the consequences of our action, not what we intend.
false
Which of the following would be treating someone as a means, according to Kant
look up
Which of the following would be treating someone merely as a means, in violation of the Categorical Imperative
look up
Kant believed that it is wrong to use someone as a means to our ends
false
Which of the following makes a false promise wrong, according to Kant
It treats the person who believes the false promise as a thing and not as a person
Which of the following are ways of treating people as mere means in violation of Kant's Categorical Imperative
look up
For Kant, the special moral status of people (i.e., their "dignity) is based on their
rationality
When I ask a friend to lend me some money, I am treating that person as a means in violation of the categorical imperative.
Answer
false
Bentham was a proponent of the retributivist justification of punishment
false
Deceiving someone in order to get them to do what I want would not violate the Categorical Imperative because they will have acted voluntarily and not under coercion.
false
Treating someone as an end in themselves requires that we make our purpose one of their purposes.
false
Kant objects to treating other people as a means.
false
In the example of the plumber on Rachels, page 138-139, hiring the plumber would
be morally okay because you are not treating the plumber as simply a means
Which of the following does Rachels suggest as examples of not treating people as ends
look up
Jeremy Bentham believed that some punishments were well-deserved and therefore good things.
false
Bentham was opposed to the retributivist justification of punishment because
he thought that retributivism advocated inflicting suffering without any gain in happiness
Which of the following is a utilitarian justification of punishment
look up
Which of the following is a retributivist justification for punishment
The criminal deserves punishment
Kant advocated retributivism because
even though punishing increased suffering in the world, it was alright because the suffering was borne by those who deserved it
According to Rachels, the utilitarian view of punishment is the dominant view in America today.
false
Kant objected to the utilitarian justification of punishment, because he thought it
is incompatible with human dignity
Kant thought that the utilitarian justification of punishment did which of the following
look up
Kant thought that punishment should be governed by which of the following principles
look up
Kant supported the death penalty for which of the following reasons
for murder, the death penalty is the only proportionate punishment
Kant thought that punishing a guilty person showed respect for that person because
it treated them as a rational being who could be responsible for their own behavior
Under the Kantian, retributivist theory of punishment, which of the following would not deserve to be punished
someone who is insane and therefore not able to control their actions
The name of Hobbes' most famous work in political and moral philosophy is
Leviathan
Hobbes lived in which century
17th
Hobbes believes that people are, when all is reckoned together, basically equal in strength and intellectual ability.
true
The reason Hobbes notes that with regard to their intellectual ability "every man is contented with his share" is to
Support his claim that people are basically equal in intellectual ability
An important consequence of people's relative equality for Hobbes is that they have an equality of hope that they will be able to attain their ends in competition with others who might desire the same things
true
Hobbes believed which about human beings
they are capable of only very limited altruism
Hobbes believed which of the following about the state of nature
there is not enough of what we need to go around
Which of the following does Hobbes identify as a cause of conflict (quarrel) among people
look up
diffidence means
not trusting
For Hobbes, the natural condition of human beings, when they live without a common power to keep them all in awe, is a condition of
war
Hobbes sees the state of nature as
very unpleasant
The point of Hobbes comparison of how people take precautions when going on a journey or locking their doors at night is to
Provide evidence in support of his claim that people are at war
Which of the following does Hobbes offer as empirical evidence in support of his view of the state of nature
look up
For Hobbes, there is no justice or injustice when there is no "common power" (i.e., a government)
true
The liberty that each man has to use his own power to the preserve his own life is
The right of nature
According to Hobbes, the First Law of Nature is to seek peace and follow it
true
The social contract conception of morality can be summed up as
morality consists in a set of rules that people agree to on the condition that others agree to them as well
Hobbes believes that without a "civil power" (i.e., a government) to compel people to keep the social contract, then there is no justice or propriety.
true
Which of the following does Rachels offer as an advantage of the social contract theory of ethics
Answer
it explains why it is rational for us to follow moral the moral rules
Which of the following is a supererogatory action
sacrificing yourself to save a drowning person
Judith Thomson believes that a fetus is not a person until after it is born.
false
Which of the following best describes Judith Thomson's position in her article
she assumes for the sake of argument that a fetus is a person from the moment of conception
The purpose of Judith Thomson's violinist analogy, as set out on p. 168-69 is to do which of the following
show that a right to life does not mean the right to have other people preserve one's life when the cost would be great
Judith Thomson's view is that people have a right to do anything whatever to save their lives
false
Which of the following best states Judith Thomson's position on the right to life
it consists in the right not to be killed unjustly
The purpose of Judith Thomson's "people seeds" story on p. 177 is to do which of the following
undermine the argument that a fetus has a right to its mother's body
Which of the following best states Judith Thomson's position
aofaiohsd
According to Judith Thomson,
foaj;eiorj
Judith Thomson's argument supports abortion in some cases but does not support securing the death of the unborn child.
true
As discussed in Mary Anne Warren's article, John Noonan's view is which of the following
dfja;dfja;
Mary Anne Warren believes that our moral rights are based on our being genetically human.
false
Mary Anne Warren believes which of the following
Answer
fkna;sdfkjas;
Which of the following characteristics of person does Mary Anne Warren believe a fetus possesses
a;fkljas;dfj
Which of the following is a necessary condition for personhood, according to Mary Anne Warren
alskdaf;skld
The purpose of the story Mary Anne Warren tells of the woman encountering aliens (on p. 198-99) is to do which of the following
fjas;dflkjas;
The reason Mary Anne Warren discusses infanticide is that
she needs to defend herself against the objection that her argument in support of abortion also supports infanticide
Which of the following is Don Marquis' view
abortion is usually morally wrong
According to Don Marquis, what makes the killing of another person wrong
adsjfalsdihf
Which of the following does Don Marquis offer as considerations that support his view of what makes killing wrong
dsfhnasldhf
Which of the following best describes Don Marquis' view regarding the morality of abortion
dfhnaldfsh
As presented in the Rachels essay, the traditional view of the AMA is that
passive euthanasia is morally permitted but active euthanasia is not morally permitted
Which of the following is the point of the Down's syndrome baby discussion on p. 213
dfajs;df
The point of the discussion of the Down's Syndrome baby and the intestinal blockage on p. 214 is to argue that
treating active euthanasia as morally different from passive euthanasia leads to making life and death decisions on morally irrelevant grounds
According to Rachels, the basis for the belief that there is an important moral difference between active and passive euthanasia is
the belief that killing someone is morally worse than simply letting them die
The purpose of the discussion of the Smith and Jones cases on p. 215 is to do which of the following
to undermine the claim that there is a morally important difference between killing and letting die
Which of the following does Rachels offer as differences between the Smith and Jones cases (on p. 215) and the euthanasia cases with which doctors are usually concerned
asidjfasoid
Rachels asserts that the important similarity between the Smith and Jones cases and the euthanasia case is that
dfhna;dsihf
The key mistake in the AMA position concerning euthanasia, according to Rachels is
adhfa;shd
Which of the following does Rachels offer as an explanation for why people tend to think that killing is worse than simply letting die
;adsklfja;k
The point of the block quotation on p. 217 is to do which of the following:
support the moral distinction between active euthanasia and passive euthanasia
Rachels' responds to the argument on p. 217 by asserting which of the following
fa;dslfkjasdkj
Rachels believes which of the following about the legal prohibition of active euthanasia
it cannot be used to support a moral difference between active euthanasia and passive euthanasia
Sullivan points out that one of the downsides of improved medical technology is that it allows preserving lives that will be painful
true
Which of the following is part of the "traditional view" of the physician's role, as presented in the Sullivan essay
it is impermissible to terminate intentionally the life of the patient
Sullivan agrees with Rachels that it makes little difference from the moral point of view to kill by action or malevolent inaction.
true
Which of the following is part of the distinction between extraordinary measures and ordinary measures.
the amount of pain the measure will cause
The purpose of the example Sullivan offers regarding foregoing exercise (on p. 223) is to do which of the following
to exemplify the difference between foreseeing an occurrence and intending to bring it about
Which of the following expresses Sullivan's view regarding the withdrawal of ordinary measures
the refusal to use ordinary measures is morally wrong, because that refusal indicates a desire to bring about the death of the patient
Sullivan asserts that the basis of the traditional view is which of the following.
a;fkhads;
The purpose of the C. S. Lewis quotation on p. 225 is to do which of the following
adfjasdj
Which of the following is a "theological virtue" stressed by Medieval Christian philosophers
hope
Which of the following is an ethics of right action
utilitarianism
According to Aristotle, a virtue is
a good habit
The opposite of a virtue is
a vice
According to Aristotle, virtues are important because
they are all qualities needed for successful living
Which of the following is not a virtue
good luck
Aristotle believed which of the following
people from different cultures have a lot in common, despite our differences
Which of the following do Rachels and Aristotle offer as being true of disparate societies
look up
Which of the following does Rachels contend about virtues in different cultures
the major virtues are mandated by facts about our common human condition
The story of Smith in the hospital being visited by a friend, on page 168 of the Rachels text, is offered to do which of the following.
show that the reason why a person does a good deed can be morally important
When it comes to the importance of impartiality in ethics, virtue ethics does which of the following
allows for some partiality towards loved ones and friends
Rachels believes that moral theories that emphasize right action seem incomplete because they neglect the question of character.
true
Radical virtue ethics is incomplete in which of the following ways
look up
Aristotle was Plato's teacher.
false
Aristotle defines the "good" as
that at which all things aim
According to Aristotle, the function of a human being is
to live an active life of the element in him that has a rational principle—i.e., to live a life of rational activity
For Aristotle, the two kinds of virtue are intellectual and
moral
According to Aristotle, virtues exist in us by nature
false
According to Aristotle, we develop or acquire a virtue
by practicing or exercising the virtuous behavior
In his writings on ethics, Aristotle is concerned mainly with theoretical ethics
false
The virtuous behavior is associated with
the mean between two extremes
The virtuous behavior between cowardice and rashness is
courage
To be virtuous, the virtuous person must not merely do the right/virtuous action but must also do so
look up
Aristotle uses the example of a patient who listens attentively to his doctor but then doesn't actually do what the doctor ordered him to do. The purpose of this story is
to stress the point that acquiring a virtue requires acting virtuously, not just theorizing about it
Aristotle believed that it is very easy for people to become virtuous
false