Physiology - Cell Respiration and Metabolism

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______ - all reactions in the body that involve energy transfermtion
metabolism
The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into ____ _____ where one chemical is transformed into another by a sequence of enzymes
metabolic pathways
______ - a type of metabolic pathway that adds energy/produces energy, usually in the form of ATP
catabolism
_______-a type of metabolic pathway that requires energy
anabolism
name the 2 types of cellular respiration
anaerobic, aerobic
does aerobic cellular respiration require oxygen?
yes
does anaerobic cellular respiration require oxygen?
no
Glycolysis is used to break down ___ ____ in aerobic cellular respiration
pyruvate acid
define glycolysis
break down of glucose
NAD is a _____ because it is a carrier of electrons
coenzyme
Equation for aerobic cellular respiration
glucose + 2NAD + 2 ADP +2P =
2 pyruvate acid + 2 NADH + 2ATP
In anaerobic cellular respiration, pyruvate acid is not metabolized by cellular respiration buy undergoes _____
fermentation
In anaerobic cellular respiration, pyruvate is not transported to the mitochondria but remains in the cytoplasm and is converted to waste product such as _____
lactic acid
In anaerobic cellular respiration, there is no oxygen to accept the H+ ions in the mitochondria so that NAD can be recycled for glycolysis so pyruvate acid accepts the H+ and turns into ____
lactic acid
overproduction of lactic acid is a positive sign for ____
myocardial infarction
describe myocardial infarction and how it relates to cellular respiration
the myocardium has a deficiency of oxygen (hypoxemia) due to atherosclerosis, so the myocardium cannot receive enough oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration so there is no production of ATP and there is a lactic acid build up
Name the signs/symptoms for myocardial ischemia
chest pain, pain in left arm
describe glycogenesis
cells cannot have alot of glucose so they convert it to glycogen for storage
list the process of glycogenesis
glucose to glucose 6 phosphate to glucose 1 phosphate to glycogen
What is the enzyme that converts glucose 1 phosphate to glycogen in glycogenesis
glycogen synthase
list the process of glycogenolysis
glycogen to glucose 1 phosphate to glucose 6 phosphate to glucose
What is the enzyme that converts glycogen to glucose 1 phosphate
glycogen phosphorylase
Glycogenesis primarily occurs where
liver
name the 2 hormones that control glycogenolysis
glucagon, epinephrine
Glucagon from the ____ and epinephrine from the ______ are hormones that act on an ______ to _____ when ______
pancrease; adrenal gland; enzyme; stop glycogeneis; glucose is low
what is gluconeogenesis
production of new glucose; conversion of lactic acid by liver into glucose
Gluconeogeneis can be described by the ___ ___
cori cycle
What is the goal of the Kreb's cycle?
production of ATP in the mitochondria
How many ATP's does the electron transport chain make?
32
What is lipolysis
break down of fat to convert it to ketone body
What is the purpose of brown fat?
gives energy for production of ATP in young infants
Production of ATP by the mitochondria
1. ____ and ____ are enzymes that carry electrons and hydrogen ions from the cytoplasm to the matrix of the mitochondria

2. electron is released and passed through the _____ of the cristae

3. by time, the electron loses its power. Because of this, the _____ ion is released by NAD and FAD.

4. The Hydrogen ion moves from the matrix to the ____ ____ of the mitochondria

5. ______ occurs as hydrogen ions increase in the outer compartment

6. When the hydrogen ion concentration increases, the hydrogen ion moves from high to low concentration by passing through the ________

7. b/c of this, ADP and Phosphate come together to form ATP by using ____ and forming ____
NAD; FAD; electron transport chain; hydrogen; outer compartment; chemiosmosis; ATP synthase channel; oxygen; water