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Earth Science - Chapter 6 Vocabulary & Key Concepts
Terms in this set (47)
the unending circulation of Earth's water supply which moves through the oceans, the atmosphere, the geosphere, and the biosphere.
the movement of surface water into rock or soil through cracks and pore spaces.
the course that a stream of water follows.
the slope or steepness of a stream channel.
the volume of water flowing past a certain point in a given unit of time.
a stream that empties into another stream.
a bend in a stream or river.
the part of a stream's load of solid material that is made up of sediment too large to be carried in suspension.
the maximum load the a stream can carry.
an accumulation of sediment formed where a stream enters a lake or ocean.
a ridge made up mostly of coarse sediments that parallels some streams.
a area where a river overflows its banks and produces a flat valley floor.
this occurs when the discharge of a stream becomes so great that it exceeds the capacity of its channel and overflows its banks.
the land area that contributes water to a stream.
an imaginary line that separates the drainage basins of one stream from another.
the percentage of the total volume of rock or sediment that consists of pore spaces.
the ability of the ground to transmit a fluid, like water.
permeable rock layers or sediments that transmit groundwater freely.
zone of saturation
the area water fills all of the pore spaces in sediment and rock.
water beneath the ground and found in the zone of saturation.
the upper limit of the zone of saturation.
a flow of groundwater that emerges naturally at the ground surface.
an intermittent hot spring or fountain in which a column of water shoots up with great force at various intervals.
a hole bored into the zone of saturation for accessing water.
when ground water rises on its own under pressure.
a naturally formed underground chamber.
the calcium carbonate that is left behind from dripping water which produces limestone deposits.
landscapes that have been shaped by the dissolving power of groundwater.
a depression produced in a region where groundwater has removed soluble rock.
What does it mean to say that the Earth's water cycle is balanced?
the average annual precipitation over Earth equals the amount of water that evaporates and transpires.
What is the most important factor in determining the power of a stream to erode and transport material?
How do gradient and discharge change between a stream's source and its mouth?
while gradient decreases between a stream's headwaters and mouth, discharge increases.
What is a stream's base level?
the lowest point to which a stream can erode its channel.
How do streams erode their channels and transport sediment?
by lifting loose particles, by abrasion and grinding, and by dissolving soluble material.
How does stream deposition work?
when streamflow drops below the critical settling velocity of a certain particle size, the sediment in that category begins to settle out.
What are three ways streams transport sediment?
in solution, in suspension, and bouncing or rolling along the bottom.
What are the two types of stream valleys?
narrow valleys and wide valleys
What causes floods?
most are caused by rapid spring snow melt or storms that bring heavy rains over a large region.
What are the major flood control measures?
artificial levees, flood control dams, and placing limits on floodplain development.
What is the relationship between a stream and a drainage basin?
a drainage basin is the land area that contributes water to a stream.
How does ground water move?
it moves by twisting and turning through interconnected small openings. The groundwater moves more slowly when the pore spaces are smaller.
Where is ground water located?
most of the water in soil seeps downward until it reaches the zone of saturation.
How do springs form?
whenever the water table intersects the ground surface.
What are some environmental threats to groundwater supplies?
contamination and overuse
How do most caverns form?
as groundwater erodes away the calcium bicarbonate in limestone rock.
Where do most caverns form?
at or below the water table in the zone of saturation.
What landforms are common in an area of karst topography?
it has an irregular terrain with many depressions called sinkholes.
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