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above the vocal folds


below the vocal folds

Ventricle of Morgagni

gap between false vocal folds and true vocal folds

Lamina Propria

Superficial, Intermediate, Deep layers of vocal fold

Vocal ligament

Intermediate & Deep layers

The intermediate layer of the lamina propria is made of an ___, flexible matrix


The deep layer of the lamina propria is made of a ___ matrix


The superficial layer of the lamina propria is made of ___ matrix and has an epithelial mucus membrane


Sexual Dimorphism

Duel form

In puberty, the male ___ cartilage becomes ___

thyroid, narrow

In puberty, the female ___ cartilage remains ___ (wide)

thyroid, oblique

Posterior glottal gap present in females

Posterior gap between adducted vocal folds, leads to breathiness

Vocal fold has two behaviors

1) Abduction & Adduction 2) Open/Close Cycle of VF vibration

During Abduction & Adduction, we are capable of quiet breathing, ___ (glottal frication), ___, and ___ (glottal stop)

noise, voicing, silence

The open/close cycle of VF vibration allows ___ of ___ ___ to make the adducted vocal folds vibrate

airflow, subglottal pressure

The open/close cycle of VF vibration tenses the muscles to modulate ___ and ___

pitch, loudness

Phonation/voicing consists of ___, ___, or ___ types of voicing; and ___/low or loud/___ pitch.

breathy, normal, creaky; high, soft

Open/close of the VF cycle is an ___ process


Contract the cricothyroid to make a ___ pitch


Contract the vocalis to make a ___ pitch


We use active muscular forces during ___


Medial compression

adduct vocal folds and determine tension

Which muscles control medial compression?

Lateral cricoarytenoids, arytenoids (transverse and oblique), muscularis

Prephonation phase

Controlled exhalation is occurring, subglottal pressure builds

Attack phase

Vocal folds undergo cycles of aerodynamic myoelastic vibration

Subglottal pressure begins to ___ the vocal folds from below during the ___ phase

deform, attack

Subglottal pressure forces vocal folds apart, causing a burst of ___ ___ to release

compressed air

Compressed air released during attack phase is also called a ___ or a __ ___.

soundwave, glottal pulse

Soundwave is a ripple in the mucosa causing a ___ ____ ____

complex periodic sound

Vertical phase difference is the ___ of complex periodic sound


Bernoulli Effect

sucks folds back together after soundwave occurs

Elastic recoil

forces the vocal folds to return to a non-deformed position

Subglottal Pressure, Elastic recoil and the Bernoulli Effect are __-___ forces


Longitudinal Tension

muscles that control stretching/tensing of vocal folds, control pitch

Muscles that control longitudinal tension

cricothyroids, (stretch for high pitch), vocalis (shorten for low pitch)

Pitch of voice

our perception of the fundamental frequency of phonation

Thick, flaccid folds vibrate ___


Thin, more tense folds vibrate ___


Low pitch is close to our ___ pitch


Loudness modulation: amount of __-___ pressure being produced by the rate of controlled ___

sub-glottal, exhalation

As pitch rises, so must ______ pressure


Speakers can produce larger dynamic range of intensity at ____ of pitch



narrow device with light and camera; down the throat


endoscope with stroboscopic light--observe phonation in what appears to be slow motion


light sensor placed on neck near glottis, measures light source that shines through glottis during abduction and phonation

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