24 terms

Organic Chemistry

Regents Chemistry- Spalding
STUDY
PLAY
General properties of organic compounds
Organic Compounds:

1) Contain/based on carbon atoms: HONC
2) Low melting and boiling points
3) Non-polar molecules
4) NOT water soluble
5) Reactions occur slowly
(example: oil- not water soluble, food- reactions in stomach occur slowly to digest)
Molecular Formula
Molecular formula (C₂H₆O):
→tells us which elements
→tells us how many
Structural Formula
Structural formula (looks like a map of the compound):
→Shows us how atoms are arranged/bonded

*Gives us much more information than other formulas
Condensed Formula
Condensed formula (CH₃CH₂OH)
→COMBINATION of molecular/structural formulas
Draw and name various hydrocarbons- including isomers (tables P and Q)
a) Alkanes
b) Alkenes
c) Alkynes
d) Saturated and Unsaturated
Hydrocarbons:
-compounds with ONLY hydrogen and carbon (example: fossil fuels)

*If you want to know how to count carbon style, see table P

-There are multiple types of hydrocarbons based upon the bonds that can be made between the carbon atoms: called alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, saturated and unsaturated
*How to properly name/draw hydrocarbons:*
Tips for naming/drawing hydrocarbons:
-If it has isomers, check to see if it needs the "N-" in front of it
*Read name given backwards and start from there when drawing!
-The branches have to go on the LOWEST possible carbon number!
-Use the general formula to figure out the number of hydrogens when carbons are given
-Specify where the double/triple bonds in alkenes/alkynes are made by saying "1-" or "2-" in front
-DON'T FORGET: the valence electrons on certain elements when drawing!


Example:
# on the branch ("yl" means branch)

2 methyl propane →how many carbons in a row/bond #

place of the branch

*if it says: "dimethyl": means that there are TWO branches!
Isomers
-Same molecular formula, different structural formula (and different properties)

→Use the line test to see if it is actually different (not just appearing to be different)
Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons:
-compounds with ONLY hydrogen and carbon (example: fossil fuels)
Alkanes
Alkanes:
-have all single bonds between carbon atoms

General formula (all alkanes fit this, in reference table):
CnH₂n+₂
*Make sure you distinguish between N-Butane and it's isomers! (where N=normal)

Examples: Methane, Ethane and Propane (think: can you draw these?)
Alkenes
Alkenes:
-have 1 double bond between carbon atoms

*DON'T FORGET: specify where the double bond is made by saying "1-" in front

General Formula:
CnH₂n

Examples: Butene, Ethene
Alkynes
Alkynes:
-have 1 triple bond between carbon atoms

General Formula:
CnH₂n₋₂

Examples: Ethyne, Butyne
Saturated Hydrocarbon
-Hydrocarbon with only single bonds (alkane)

→How to remember: saturated fats are BAD for you, because it's easier for the body to break them down because it's a SINGLE bond...which means less fat is used in the process!
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
Hydrocarbon with double/triple bonds (alkenes and alkynes)

→How to remember: unsaturated fats are better for the body because they are harder to break down due to the double and triple bonds, meaning more fat is used to break them down!
*H.O.N.C.*
H: Hydrogen → 1 (can make one bond)

O: Oxygen → 2 (can make two bonds)

N: Nitrogen → 3 (can make three bonds)

C: Carbon → 4 (can make four bonds)
Functional groups
-Specific groups of atoms/bonds within molecules; gives molecules characteristic chemical reaction (or IDENTITY)
→What "gang" it belongs to
Know how to use table R to classify, draw and name specific organic compounds
*USE REFERENCE TABLE FOR MORE INFO
-Halides
-Alcohols (NOT AN ACID: NEUTRAL)
-Ether
-Adehydes
-Ketones
-Organic Acids
-Esters
-Amine
-Amide
Addition Reactions
-Must have UNSATURATED hydrocarbons (alkenes and alkynes)

H H Cl Cl
C= C + Cl - CL → H-C-C-H
H H H H

*Chlorines MUST fill in the space and go: one on EACH carbon!
Substitution Reactions
-Must have SATURATED hydrocarbons (alkanes)
-Both substituiton/saturation begin with a "s"...

H H
H Cl H + Br-Br → H-C-Br + H-Br
H H
Combustion Reactions (Oxidation)
-Could be with ANY hydrocarbon
*BUT the result is always:
CO₂ +H₂O

-MAKE SURE THEY ARE BALANCED!
Polymerization
1) Condensation polymerization
2) Addition polymerization

*Involves monomer→POLYmer
(one unit to many units)

tiny → BIG

Usually:
monomer+monomer → polymer + water

*Addition Polymerization:

n( C=C ) → ( C-C ) n
-Just need to show: we start with a lot, end with a lot too (but written in shorthand)
→sequence repeated
→breaks double bonds
Types of polymers
Natural Polymers:
-Starch- sugars=the monomers (can digest=easy bonds)
-DNA- nucleotides (A,C,T,G)
-Protein- amino acids (20 types)
-Cellulose- sugars= monomers (can't digest b/c of bondage)

Synthetic Polymers:
-Nylon (NY+London)-fabric
-Polythylene (Shoprite bags)
-Polyester- fabric
Fermentation
-How alcoholic beverages are produced
→ALL ARE MADE THE SAME WAY

C₆H₁₂O₆ → C₂H₅OH + CO₂
(enzyme)
Saponification
-How soap is made (just think: start big)

Fat + Strong Base → Soap + Glycerin
Esterfication
-How esters are produced

Acid + Alcohol → Ester + Water