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Terms in this set (50)
There are several problems with polygraph techniques that use the standard procedures like CQT. Which of the following is NOT one of these problems?
A. People who do not have faith in the validity of the polygraph may not respond in the way examiners expect
B. There is lack of standardization and significant subjectivity in polygraph examiners' scoring
C. In some people, lying produces little physiological response.
D. Polygraph techniques work especially well if a person believes the polygraph in nearly infallible.
Polygraph techniques work especially well if a person believes the polygraph is nearly infallible
Training people to detect lies ____ their ability ____ their confidence in their ability to discern lies.
A. does not improve; and enhances
B. improves; and enhances
C. does not improve; but raises
D. improves; but undermines
does not improve; but raises
A robbery suspect is apprehended and being read his Miranda rights by the police woman arresting him. The suspect is most likely to ____ his Miranda rights.
A major difference between an advocate and an expert witness is
A. the advocate strongly identifies with only one side
B. the expert witness strongly identifies with only one side
C. the advocate is paid
D. none of the above
the advocate strongly identifies with only one side
Susan is studying developmental psychology, but is also interested in law. What might she be called upon to testify about if called into court?
A. the predictability of repeat behavior in a person who batters his or her spouse
B. group behavior
C. the reliability of expert witnesses
D. the impact of long-term exposure to violence on television on children
the impact of long-term exposure to violence on television on children
Sylvester is hired by the defense to help select jurors who would be less likely to convict. This is an example of the following role played by psychologists in the legal system:
After an intense interrogation process, Matthew became convicted that he robbed the store. This form of false confession is called an:
A. coerced - compliant false confession
B. voluntary false confession
C. coerced - internalized false confession
D. authentic voluntary confession
coerced - internalized false confession
In Kovera & MsAuliff (2000), untrained judges gave ___ admissibility ratings to the confounded study than the scientifically trained judges.
Hugo is interrogated alone and told repeatedly that his guilt is corroborated by both physical evidence and eyewitness accounts. This approach most likely embodies the following strategy used by police during Hugo's interrogation:
A. loss of control and autonomous perspective
B. social isolation and certainty of guilt
C. autonomous perspective and certainty of guilt
D. sense of loss of control and entitlement
social isolation and certainty of guilt
Ricardo is conducting research on the effects of solitary confinement on mental health. This is an example of the following role played by a psychologist in the legal system:
Shane was involved in a highly charged court case. His job was to provide an overview of research to assist the jury in making a well informed decision regarding the suspect, in particular, in regard to the suspect's confession. Shane was called in to serve in what capacity?
A. Crime scene investigator
B. Expert witness
C. Special contributor to the court
D. Clinical psychologist
Consider the following interrogation scenario: Tom Jones is being interrogated for the murder of his girlfriend. The police officer conducting the interrogation screams the following at Tom: "I am 1 0 0 % sure that you committed this crime. We found your fingerprints on the knife. This is first degree murder unless you confess and explain what happened right now." In actuality, the police have no fingerprint evidence. How would you best characterize the "scare tactic" interrogation techniques being used by the police officer?
A. good cop/bad cop techniques
B. torture techniques
C. minimization techniques
D. maximization techniques
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Lying is very common and wide - spread
B. Deception makes social interactions go more smoothly
C. The vast majority of people never tell lies
D. There are a lot of different types of lies and reasons for lying
The vast majority of people never tell lies
Please select the names of the current Supreme Court Justices
Sandra Day O'Connor
According to the text, the "_____ hypothesis" posits that human intelligence was accelerated by the need for humans to develop social skills related to manipulation, pretense, and deception.
A. fluid intelligence
B. Goleman's emotional intelligence
C. crystallized intelligence
D. Machiavellian intelligence
According to research studies described in the text, mock jurors who reported that they disregarded the confession as clearly coerced were _____ likely to convict the defendant.
A. still more
B. not more
C. significantly less
D. somewhat less
Michelle is in custody and being interrogated. One of the police officers is being nice and tries to empathize with her while the other one glares at her and accuses her of committing the crime because of her greed. The behavior of the police officers is an example of:
A. establishing a sense of social isolation.
B. convincing Michelle that there is no proof of her guilt.
C. providing a sense of control.
D. playing "good cop-bad cop."
playing "good cop - bad cop"
Jeremy purposely confessed to a crime he did not commit to cover for his wife. This type of confession is referred to as an:
A. coerced-compliant false confession.
B. coerced-internalized false confession.
C. authentic-coerced false confession.
D. voluntary false confession.
voluntary false confession
Brandeis's brief in Muller v Oregon (1908) was a milestone in the development of the psychology and law union because it:
A. opened the door for U.S. courts to use social scientific evidence.
B. expanded graduate training for psychologists.
C. mandated the use of research training for judges.
D. relied on expert testimony from professional psychologists.
opened the door for U.S. courts to use social scientific evidence
The American Psychology Law Society was established in the 1850s.
All of the following are possible explanations for waiving the Miranda rights, EXCEPT:
A. the suspect may not understand his or her rights clearly.
B. people are used to signing waivers or various kinds.
C. police are very careful in explaining to suspects their rights.
D. people do not want to create an impression they are guilty.
Police are very careful in explaining to suspect their rights
The _____ approach treats laws as a tool that needs to be regularly reexamined and adjusted, whereas _____ treats laws as evolved to reflect the principles found in nature.
A. legal objectivism; environmental law
B. environmental law; legal objectivism
C. legal realism; "natural law".
D. "natural law"; legal realism
Legal realism; "natural law"
The ultimate goal of interrogating a suspect is to:
A. determine best search techniques.
B. elicit a confession.
C. provide a basis for DNA analysis.
D. define parameters for search.
elicit a confession
The knowledge and skills of clinical psychologists might be relevant for the legal system in which one of these cases?
A. When evaluating the validity of a confession statement.
B. When deciding whether the eyewitness is able to remember the scene of crime.
C. When selecting jurors potentially sympathetic to the defendant.
D. When assessing a mentally ill defendant for potential risk of violence.
When assessing a mentally ill defendant for potential risk of violence
Differences in goals, methods, and styles of inquiry made the relationship between psychology and law:
A. natural and harmonious.
B. difficult but important.
C. impossible to forge.
D. successful in every way.
difficult but important
A polygraph shows that David is guilty of murder, when in fact he is innocent. This is an example of a
A. false negative
B. false positive
C. true negative
D. true positive
Studies evaluating the effectiveness of the D.A.R.E. program found that:
A. the program is effective in reducing drug use but increases delinquency.
B. the program is only effective in reducing delinquency.
C. the program is highly effective in reducing both drug use and delinquency.
D. the program is not effective in reducing drug use.
the program is not effective in reducing drug use
Lying is considered to be an adaptive behavior from a(n) _____ point of view.
False confessions may occur as a result of:
D. All of these may lead to false confessions.
All of these may lead to false confessions
According to research completed by Bond and DePaulo (2006), people's ability to distinguish lies has a _____ rate of accuracy, and efforts to improve people's ability to discern lies have _____.
A. barely above chance; been very successful
B. significantly above chance; not been very successful
C. significantly above chance; been very successful
D. barely above chance; not been very successful
barely above chance; not been very successful
Marissa is being polygraphed using the guilty knowledge test (GKT). This test focuses on whether Marissa:
A. understands facts that were published about the crime in the media.
B. is willing to share information that is uncomfortable for most people to share.
C. remains unwilling to be tested, which amounts to her admission of guilt.
D. knows facts that one would expect that only the criminal would know.
knows the facts that one would expect that only the criminal would know
Russano, Meissner, Narchet, and Kassin (2005) reported higher rates of ________confessions compared to _____confessions.
GKT is one of the most promising polygraph techniques to date. However, there are some limitations to its usefulness. These limitations include that:
A. most criminals remember the scene of their crimes very clearly.
B. many crimes are widely publicized in the media.
C. a sufficient number of crime facts uniquely known by only the criminal is often not available.
D. polygraph examiners are reluctant to take on the leading role in formulating the questions.
E. All of the Above
F. Only A & C
G. Only B & C
H. Only A & D
Only B & C
For a reasonable evaluation of scientific validity of potential expert testimony, one needs to have sufficient understanding of:
A. court proceedings.
B. jury instructions.
C. legal terminology.
D. research methods.
In the Kassin & Kiechel's Alt Key false confession study, what was the compliance rate in the high vulnerability/false evidence condition?
The tendency to attribute others' behavior to dispositional causes such as personality is referred to as:
A. false memory syndrome.
B. fundamental attribution error.
C. functional fixedness.
D. frustration-aggression hypothesis.
fundamental attribution error
The Daubert trilogy of cases impacts trial courts by:
A. making judges take statistics courses and regular refresher training.
B. putting the burden of decisions about allowing expert testimony on trial judges.
C. proving scientific research is well understood by all key actors in the legal system.
D. demonstrating that judges understand social science research and methods.
putting the burden of decisions about allowing expert testimony on trial judges
Research in the field of social psychology has discovered that people tend to _____ the impact of situational forces, and this process is responsible for believing that suspects in police custody would _____ to the crime they did not commit.
A. disregard; not confess
B. overestimate; not confess
C. overestimate; confess
D. disregard; confess
disregard; not confess
Which of the following states are part of the Second Court of Appeals?
B. New Hampshire
E. New Jersey
F. New York
G. A & C
H. A & F
I. B & E
J. E & F
A & F
The knowledge and skills of social psychologists might be relevant for the legal system in which one of these cases?
A. When assessing a mentally ill defendant for potential risk of violence.
B. When deciding whether the eyewitness is able to remember the scene of crime.
C. When evaluating which custody arrangement will most benefit the child's development.
D. When studying the dynamics of jury deliberation.
When studying the dynamics of jury deliberation
Research by Kassin and his colleagues has shown that even when _____ had no problem recognizing that a confession was coerced, they still voted _____ more often.
A. jurors; guilty
B. jurors; not guilty
C. police; guilty
D. police; not guilty
In consideration of scientific testimony, gatekeeping in the legal sense includes:
A. providing instructions to the jurors before they start deliberation.
B. assessing the scientific validity of potential testimony.
C. determining court session protocol and procedures.
D. counseling juries on the value of scientific evidence.
assessing the scientific validity of potential testimony
All of the following is true about the use of torture in interrogations, EXCEPT:
A. torture-based interrogations are likely to increase false confessions.
B. people who claim that "torture works" offer only anecdotal evidence to support their position.
C. there is clear research evidence that torture leads to extracting useful information.
D. there is no direct research on the effectiveness of torture.
there is clear research evidence that torture leads to extracting useful information
The "three-strikes" laws are a reflection of which model of the criminal justice system?
A. Due Process Model
B. Victims' Rights Model
C. Crime Control Model
D. Strict Constitutional Model
Crime control model
George is a suspect in a larceny case. He has been offered a deal from the prosecution that is only available for 48 hours. The Prosecutor is hoping that George will fall prey to which of the following principles of social influence.
commitment & consistency
The Reid technique is _____ used by police when questioning suspects. Establishing a sense of loss of control as part of this technique makes suspects feel _____.
A. often; empowered
B. rarely; empowered
C. often; vulnerable
D. rarely; vulnerable
Techniques such as biting the tongue, pressing the toes to the floor, or counting backwards are all examples of:
A. countermeasures to polygraph testing.
B. aversion to polygraph testing.
C. liar's stereotype.
D. aiding in polygraph testing.
countermeasures to polygraph testing
The comparison question test (CQT) posits that guilty individuals react more strongly to _____ questions, whereas innocent individuals react more strongly to _____ questions.
A. known; unknown
B. comparison; relevant
C. relevant; comparison
D. unknown; known
During interrogation of a suspect, openly physical brutality was _____ prior to 1930.
A. sometimes approved
B. frequently used
C. rarely used
D. generally avoided
Isabella is advocating for a change in the way domestic violence victims are treated by police and the courts. This is an example of the following role played by psychologists in the legal system:
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