14 terms

Plano Science Tutor Biochemistry

A basic introduction to types of bonds, levels of molecular organization, and organic compounds
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Atom
The smallest unit of matter
Element
Any of the more than 100 known types of atoms
Compound
A substance formed by the chemical union of two or more elements
Covalent Bond
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Ionic Bond
A chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron and the other atom gains an electron
Hydrogen Bond
A bond created by the weak attraction of a slightly positive hydrogen atom to a slightly negative portion of another molecule
Carbohydrates
A compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms and includes all sugars and starches
Monosaccharide
The monomer of a carbohydrate; examples include glucose, fructose, and galactose
Lipids
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Glycerol and 3 Fatty Acids
The monomers of a lipid; first two fatty acids are saturated, the third is unsaturated
Proteins
A compound that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen needed by tissues for repair and growth
Amino Acid
The monomer of a protein; there are 20 different types, all held together by peptide bonds
Nucleic Acids
A compound made of N, C, H, O, and P and stores the genetic information of a cell
Nucleotide
The monomer of a nucleic acid; contains a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate, and a Nitrogen base