World Geography Midterm
Terms in this set (67)
when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere
December Solstice (December 21) and Summer Solstice (June 21)
the moment in which the plane of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun's disk
20 March and 23 September
The solid crust of Earth, which includes land and soil.
An envelope of gases that surround the Earth. The atmosphere protects the Earth from the sun's harmful radiation.
This is the Earth's water that covers 70% of the Earth's surface. Much of the Earth's water is in the form of ice locked in the polar regions.
This sphere overlaps all the others and includes all life forms, both plants and animals.
Have one or more common features that make them different from surrounding areas.
Are composed of different places that are linked together and function as a unit.
east-west lines drawn on a grid
north-south lines drawn on a grid.
the arrangement of the natural and artificial physical features of an area.
all the visible features of an area of countryside or land, often considered in terms of their aesthetic appeal.
The four spheres include all the biological, chemical, and physical conditions that interact and affect life.
Tropic of Cancer
The Northern Tropic
Tropic of Capricorn
The Southern Tropic
A theory explaining the plates of the earth and their movements.
Name of the supercontinent when no continents were split up.
Earth's atmosphere traps heat energy in this process.
Most scientists believe that this is the result of human activities such as burning coal, natural gas, and oil.
Water heats and cools more slowly than land.
The process by which water vapor changes from a liquid to a gas.
The process by which water vapor changes from a gas into liquid droplets.
Any form of water that falls from the sky.
When moist air pushes against a mountain.
The most powerful and destructive of the tropical cyclones.
State of inactivity.
The most complex land ecosystem in the world.
Areas of tropical grasslands,scattered trees, and shrubs.
Permanently frozen soil.
The type of climate in which the trees remain green all year.
A tree or shrub
A wind system in which winds completely reverse direction and cause seasons of wet and dry.
The community of plants and animals in an area.
Characteristics learned and passed down to children through teaching, example, and imitation.
the absorption and digestion of food or nutrients by the body or any biological system.
The process in which an individual or group adopts all the features of another culture.
This occurs when an idea or innovation from one group to another and is adopted.
1840s- famine and British maltreatment
America, Boston, and Democratic Party
people use natural resources directly (such as fishing, farming, and herding)
people use raw materials to produce something new (such a turning wheat into flour, raw sugar cane into refined sugar, lumber into plywood.)
people provide services (such as doctors, store clerks, online retailers)
the government decides what to produce
Communism, Socialism communal (or government) ownership of the means or production.
people are free to choose what they buy and sell.
Free enterprise and competition determines the price of the products, the desire for profit drives decisions
Businesses supply products and set prices to meet demand
Capitalism is the basis of the market economy,private ownership of the means of production.
(USA, Australia, Europe, and Japan)
Gross Domestic Product
total value of goods and services produced within a country in a year.
the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities
The form of agriculture, used especially in Africa.
Domestication of plants and animals: the most important development in world history.
10,000 YA. Hunter-gatherers learned to grow plants and tame animals for their own use.
Rivers, mountain ranges, oceans, and deserts
lines of latitude or longitude
A line that runs along differences in ethnicity, such as language and religion.
Food is produced by a family for its own use, using little or no machinery (Corn in South America, cassava in Africa)
Pattern shifting cultivation
Farmers clear trees or brush for planting
Burn the debris
Over time the land yield decreases
Fields are abandoned
New fields are cleared.
Tax on imports and exports
A limited number of a product.
Attachment of a person to a nation.
A region in the US where there is flat land. East of the Rocky Mountains
Mountain Range in the western part of the United States.
an upland region at or near a mountain range, from Alabama to New Jersey
Cascade Ranges: Northern California, Oregon, Washington contains volcanoes such as Mt. St. Helens
Borders the the Cascade Mountain Range.
Ring of Fire
active volcanoes and earthquake faults.
Coastal California sits astride the Pacific Plate and the North American plate, where the two meet is the San Andreas Fault
An arc of ancient rocks also shaped by glaciers, encircles Hudson Bay
Canadian Shield is a rocky landscapes with little soil for productive farmland (described as waterlogged and covered with lakes and wetlands)
(Shield: a large area of tectonically stable rocks)
the crest of the Rockies to the east, primarily the Missouri and Mississippi form a network of waterways for trade and transportation
Large estate usually owned by wealthy families but worked by many peasants.
A plateau that is in the center of Mexico and covers up a good portion
Sierra Madre Mountains:
Sierra Madre Occidental
Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre del sur
Conquerors from Spain.
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