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Terms in this set (25)
Eyewitnesses depend on ___________ to identify or describe a suspect
A. police assistance
C. understanding criminology
Suppose you were an eyewitness to a robbery. While being questioned at the scene of the crime, the police inform you that they have picked up a suspect. They ride the suspect by you in a police car, and they ask you whether the suspect was the perpetrator. You have just participated in
A. a show-up
B. an elimination lineup.
C. a simultaneous lineup.
D. sequential lineup
a show up
It is important to avoid bias when interviewing a possible victim or witness. This is particularly true with children. One technique that may be used to avoid bias when interviewing children is the National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) Investigative Interview Protocol. The NICHD Protocol aims to accomplish all of the following EXCEPT:
A. guide interviewers toward questioning that may elicit more truthful responses from children.
B. use open-ended questions.
C. guide interviewers away from biased questions.
D. use closed-ended questions.
use close-ended questions
Individuals often _____ the duration of a brief event, especially if it is a(n) _____ event.
A. overestimate; stressful
B. underestimate; stressful
C. overestimate; interesting
D. underestimate; interesting
Aisha has been going through an emotionally tough time after the separation from her long-term partner, and her psychotherapist suggested some hypnotic sessions. During these sessions, Aisha has started vaguely recalling being fondled by her father as a baby while he was giving her baths. Memories of this type are referred to as:
A. recovered memories.
B. unconscious memories.
C. unknown memories.
D. regressed memories
Which of the following questions would be preferred when obtaining information from witnesses?
A. "Did the car run the red light at a high rate of speed?"
B. "Did the car run the red light?"
C. "What can you tell me about the accident?"
D. "Was the car in the left lane (officer points to the lane to offer a visual aid)?"
"What can you tell me about the accident?"
We should be especially skeptical of allegedly recovered memories in the following conditions EXCEPT:
A. the recollection involved extended abuse continuing into adolescence.
B. memories of abuse came back as flashes of particular incidents.
C. recalling began as vague feelings rather than clear memories.
D. abuse happened before the age of 3, according to the alleged memories.
memories of abuse came back as flashes of particular incidents
The Manson criteria, emphasized by courts, consist of five factors to be taken into account when evaluating eyewitness identification accuracy. The following factor was clearly disproven by research:
A. the accuracy of the witness's previous descriptions of the event or perpetrator.
B. the level of confidence the witness is exhibiting about his or her memory of the event.
C. the level of attention the witness was paying to what was going on.
D. the amount of time between the crime and identification event.
the level of confidence the witness is exhibiting about his or he memory of the event
In the construction of memory, it is not uncommon to find that distortion may take place as we try to retrieve that memory. The following is NOT TRUE about this process:
A. Distortions of memories can occur during the process of retrieval.
B. Memory traces deteriorate with time passing.
C. Various sounds encoded when processing a memory are easy to retrieve.
D. With encoding, we may select only some aspects of the event when forming the memory.
various sounds encoded when processing a memory are easy to retrieve
Meta-analysis relies on the findings from a:
A. small group of unrelated research studies.
B. large group of related research studies.
C. large group of unrelated research studies.
D. small group of related research studies.
large groups of related research studies
In some cases, so-called memories of past abuse have "surfaced" as a result of the _____ of the alleged victim while under hypnosis or guided imagery.
Bias-reducing instructions are used to assist eyewitnesses to be accurate in their identification of a suspect. An example of such instructions is telling the eyewitness that:
A. "the true criminal might not be in the lineup or photo spread."
B. "the true criminal is probably in the lineup or photo spread."
C. "the entire case rests on the selection of someone in the lineup or photo spread."
D. "the detective has a strong feeling that one of the suspects is in the lineup or photo spread."
E. "the true criminal is not in the lineup."
F. "this lineup is made up of only innocent individuals."
G. Both A & D
"The true criminal might not be in the lineup or photo spread"
Which of the following has NOT been identified as a common error made by law enforcement when interviewing cooperative witnesses?
A. They spend too much time building rapport with witnesses.
B. Police ask too many close-ended questions.
C. They use rigid, inappropriate sequence of questions.
D. They interrupt witnesses too often.
They spend too much time building rapport with witnesses
Cross-race identifications are generally __________accurate than same race identifications.
B. a great deal more
C. as equally
There are several conclusions that can be drawn from research on implanting false memories. Which of the following conclusions is NOT correct?
A. Hypnosis and other therapeutic techniques facilitate the production of implanted memories.
B. If a person is 100% sure the memory is true, it is often a good indicator of a true memory.
C. The majority of people in the studies did not succumb to successful "memory implantation."
D. People who strongly believe in the possibility of recovering a suppressed memory are more likely to recover false memories.
If a person is 100% sure the memory is true, it is often a good indicator of a true memory
Research has demonstrated that some techniques used in interviewing children in abuse cases have been helpful. These techniques include all of the following EXCEPT:
A. simplified instructions.
B. taking an oath to tell the truth.
C. explicit statement stipulating that the interviewer does not know what happened.
D. asking the same question more than once.
E. A & D
F. A & C
G. B & C
asking the same questions more than once
When doing research, social scientists often look at many factors. Factors that are outside the control of the legal system are referred to as:
A. estimator variables.
B. independent variables.
C. dependent variables.
D. system variables.
When constructing a lineup, you should generally select foils by
A. picking foils that match the description of the perpetrator.
B. picking foils that match the appearance of the suspect.
C. randomly selecting foils using a police computer database and program without inputting the description.
D. None of these responses are correct.
picking foils that match the description of the perpatrator
The ability of an eyewitness to describe details of a critical event, including a description of the perpetrator is referred to as
A. event memory
B. autobiographical memory
C. identification memory
D. postidentification feedback
The tendency of people to be better able to recognize faces of those within their racial group than those outside their own racial group is referred to as:
A. the meta-analysis effect.
C. the cross-race effect.
D. the same-race effect.
the cross-race effect
The benefit of a cognitive interview is that:
A. it mentally reinstates the context surrounding the crime.
B. the eyewitness enters a highly suggestive state.
C. memories become fragmented and well-defined.
D. the eyewitness becomes more receptive to questions.
it mentally reinstates the context surrounding the crime
Imagine you are a psychologists interested in studying whether eyewitness' level of stress later affects the reliability of eyewitness identification. The witness' level of stress is considered a(n)
A. system variable
B. extraneous variable
C. dependent variable
D. estimator variable.
When presented with a lineup, Alexis was able to identify the perpetrator of a robbery she had witnessed. She was not sure of her identification at first, but when the investigator mentioned that another witness had also chosen the same suspect, her confidence that she remembered the perpetrator well grew close to 100%. This is an illustration of:
A. bias-reducing instructions.
C. unconscious transference.
D. post-identification feedback effect.
post-identification feedback effect
Patihis, Ho, Tingen, Lilienfeld, and Loftus (2014) reported strong agreement between clinical practitioners and the research scientists in regard to memory beliefs.
In Linda Williams' (1994) study, why did women not report sexual abuse experienced as a child?
A. They had repressed it.
B. Any of the above were possible reasons
C. They were unwilling to share this information with the interviewer.
D. They were so young when it happened, they were not fully aware of the abuse.
Any of the above were possible reasons
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