1. What is the essentialist perspective on race? How does the constructionist perspective challenge the essentialist perspective?
Essentialism is the view that certain categories, such as racial groups, have an underlying reality or true nature that one cannot observe directly. Constructionists believe that race is socially constructed and has no basis in "reality" as in biologically.
2. How do Anglo-European societies define race? Be sure to note each of the five characteristics.
Anglo Saxons determined race to be anything other than white. Anything different from them was another ethnic group that was treated as less than.
3. What are the historical origins of the idea of race?
The word race itself is modern and was used in the sense of "nation, ethnic group" during the 16th to 19th century. In the 20th century there has been a decline in racial studies, and race is being seen as a social construct.
4. How did the notion of whiteness develop, and how did it change over time?
Being white was seen as the norm in Anglo-Saxon societies, so anything different than that was seen as less than. Whiteness is almost not seen as an ethnic group because it is the norm. People who are white tend to be treated much better than other "racial groups".
Questions for Davis' (2001) Who is Black?, pages 1-16, 189, and 194-199:
5. According to Davis, how is the one-drop rule unique?
If a person even has "one drop" of black blood in their ancestry, they are considered to be African American. Even a single ancestor can define the race of a person. Whether they were mixed or completely African American, they were considered black.
6. What is the multiracial-identity movement? In what way (or ways) did this movement challenge the one-drop rule?
The multiracial-identity movement was a movement that said that people could be a part of several different racial groups. This challenged the one-drop rule because if you had some black ancestry and some white ancestry you wouldn't just be considered African American.
"The Stalled Revolution: Gender and Time Allocation in the U.S"
Questions for Casper and Bianchi's (2009), "The Stalled Revolution: Gender and Time Allocation in the U.S", pages 55-77:
How has the level of "labor force participation" (i.e., paid work) changed for women and men over the last 60 years?
Men's participation has dipped and women's has risen to 76%. Only 15% points separate the labor force rates of men and women in the prime work and family age (the gender gap of workers went from 60% to 15%).Equality progressed and then stalled.Women's employment remains much more to children than men's
How has the gender division of housework changed over the last 60 years?
There has been a dramatic improvement in equality of housework, however women still do more than men. Even Though times are starting to change, there is still a classical idea that women should do more housework.
How has the gender division of parenting responsibilities changed over the last 60 years?
Men spend more time with children when women are present; Mothers spend more solo time.Stepfathers spend less time with child then biological father. Women tend to spend more time with children regardless of whether or not they work.
Based on the evidence the authors present, why is the labor force participation of women less than that of men?
Because of gender role specialization, children tend to increase women's unpaid work and increase men's paid work. Gender gap are apparent in parenting responsibilities. Mothers adjust their work schedules to provide parental care of children, unlike fathers
There is an absence of support for maternity leave. There are more single mothers than fathers, they need to juggle kids, job, and housework. Women still do more nonmarket work and men do more market work.