Overview of Foodborne Diseases
Terms in this set (52)
most common foodborne pathogens in the US
-shiga toxin producing E. coli
What is foodnet?
collaboration between state health department and CDC to report food borne illness
What is the main issue with documenting foodborne illness in the US?
underreporting (most infections are self limiting, so never a doctor visit or definitive dx)
What food items are most implicated in causing foodborne illness?
-aquatic animal produces
most common food sources of salmonella
most common food sources of campylobacter
most common food source of shigella
water (shigells protect your house from the rain!)
most common food souce of cryptosporidium
(things you need to go into the crypt to fetch if no fridge/freezer)
most common food source of shiga toxin producing E. coli
most common food source of vibrio
water (shellfish) (the things that vibr ate in the water)
most common food source of Yersinia enterocolitica
raw, undercooked pork
most common food source of listeria
drivers of foodborne disease outbreaks in US
-increased consumption of produce
-increased food purchased away from home
-large number of employees in food service industry
-outsource of produce (ex. green onions and cucumbers from Mexico in winter months)
-new serotypes causing dz (salmonella, e. coli)
-antibiotic resistance (salmonella, campy)
What 3 agencies are responsible for food safety in the US
What food products are under USDA-FSIS control
functions of the FDA in food safety (what 4 things do they supervise)?
(protect consumer from fraudulent labeling, impure/unsafe products)
functions of the CDC in food safety
-gather data on foodborne illness
-monitor control/prevention effectiveness
What are the 2 most common salmonella serotypes in food
GI salmonella illness signs
-self limiting- usually within a week
typhoidal salmonella signs
-constipation or diarrhea
common source of S. dublin
common source of s. enterititidis
common source of s. heidelberg
common source of s. newport
common source of s. javiana
common source of s. poona
(produce = spoon)
common source of s. typhi
common source of s. typhimurium
turtles with a shell of what size are banned in the US? why
less than 4 inches- so children cannot put them in their mouths
who is at increased risk for salmonella infection from reptiles
-children <5 years
What 2 foodborne illnesses have been increasing?
What pathogen does feeding a raw diet increase risk of?
most common manifestation of campylobacteriosis in humans
-diarrhea (severe, +/- blood)
What is Guillain-Barre syndrome in response to?
acute neuromuscular paralysis in response to autoimmune-mediated disorder in response to campylobacter (all you can do is just camp out!)
What is the major source of campylobacter?
chicken (campylo BACK ter)
prevention of campylobacteriosis
-wash hands after animal/fecal contact
-avoid drinking unpasteurized milk or untreated surface water
-cook poultry thoroughly
What E. coli strain is the major public health threat?
0157:H7 (produces shiga toxins I and II)
clinical characteristics of shiga-toxigenic E. coli
-low grade fever
What does shiga-toxigenic E coli produce in children?
hemolytic uremic syndrome (acute kidney failure, anemia, low platelets)
primary reservoir for E. coli O157
ruminants (in the environment)
how is E. coli O157 transmitted to humans
-person to person
foods implicated in spread of E. coli O157
-vegetables (alfalfa, raddish sprouts, lettuce, spinach)
-unpasteurized apple juice/cider
prevention of E. coli O157
-appropriate food handling
-cook meat to 160 F
-avoid unpasteurized dairy/juices
What is unique about listeria monocytogenes?
grows well under refrigerator temperatures
What clinical syndromes are caused by listeria in humans?
What are products that get contaminated with listeria
prevention of listeria
-cook raw food of animal origin
-wash raw vegetables
-avoid soft cheeses (Mexican-style, brie, feta)
-avoid foods from deli counters
What is zero tolerance ?
if a potentially dangerous substance is present on a product, it is considered adulterated and unfit for human consumption
What foodborne pathogens are zero tolerance?
-E. coli O157... (ground beef)
-listeria (ready to eat meat products)
Where can tersinia enterocolitica be found?
-animals (pigs, birds, beavers, cat, dog, frog, fly, flea)
-meat, oysters, fish, crabs, raw milk
What is the largest public health risk with Yersinosis?
appendicitis-like syndrome (acture enterocolitis and mesenteric lymphadenitis can result in unnecessary appendix removal)
What 2 organisms are capable at growing under refrigerator temperatures?