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factors involved in infections?

portal of entry, virulence of organism, aggresiveness, toxin production, dose of pathogens, predisposition to infection

nonspecific defenses

effective against any harmful agent

specific defenses

effective against a certain agent only (vaccines)

examples of nonspecific defenses

mechanical and chemical barriers, phagocytosis, natural killer cells, inflammation, fever , interferon

mechanical barriers

intact skin and mucous membranes

chemical barriers

body secretions


WBCs engulf and destroy wastes and foreign material (neutrophils, macrophages)


change into macrophages

natural killer cells

recognize body cells with an abnormal membrane, they are found in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and blood


body's effort to get rid of anything that irritates it


heat, achiness, redness, pain, swelling

mast cells

release histamine


allows for dilation of blood vessels


indicates body defenses are at work, stimulates phagocytes, increases metabolism, decreases ability of certain organisms to multiply


interferes with the multiplication of viruses, interferon can also be used as a med to stimulate the immune system


gets rid of stuff in your body, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, diarrhea, protect the body


power to overcome a specific disease agent, selective

inborn immunity

species and individual immunity, population

acquired immunity

develops during a person's lifetime from encounters with specific harmful agents


any foreign substance that enters the body and induces an immune response

naturally acquired immunity

through contact with a specific disease organism, there is active and passive

active immunity

comes from having had the disease

passive immunity

natural, placenta, breast milk

artificially acquired active immunity

vaccination(immunization) controlled exposure to a disease producing pathogen, causes a persons immune system to manufacture antibodies

risks for artificially acquired active immunity

side effects, preventive measures

artificially acquired passive immunity

acquired by administration of immune serum (antiserum), short lived immunity, used in emergencies, often derived from animals, may cause a sensitivity reaction

live vaccine

kept in freezer

attenuated vaccine

dilute or weakened


toxin or poison that has been treated with chemicals or heat to decrease it's toxic effect but it retains it's antigenic power (tetanus) it will provoke an antibody response

genetically engineered vaccine

process of producing recombinate DNA for purpose of altering and controling, it uses enzymes insulin


a molecule, a cell, or an organism that results from the recombination of genes


active immunity does not always last a lifetime, repeated inoculation help maintain high titre of antibodies in the blood, number and timing varies with vaccines

examples of vaccines

pertussis, diphtheria tetanus toxoid, Hib, PCV, prevnar,

examples of viral vaccines

inactivated polio, measles, Hep B, hep A, varicella, influenza, rabies, rotovirus


a special treatment that involves administering gradually increasing dose of an offending allergen to help the person develop an immunity (allergy shot) desensitization


allows the person to build up a tolerance to the allergens without developing symptoms

risks of immunotherapy

anaphylaxis, doctor must always be in the building, keep pt for 20-30 minutes after injection, measure both weal and erythema

cytotoxic killer T cells

CD8 cells, work against cancer cells and cells infected with viruses

stem cells

a certain amount travel to the thymus gland and mature to T cells

T cells

originate in stem cells in bone marrow, become sensitized to specific antigens, produce cell mediated immunity, attack an antigen directly, cell to cell combat

helper T cells

infected and destroyed by HIV, help to regulate B cells and help them produce antibodies , don't function as effectively in the elderly

memory T cells

sleep until activated such as measles, chicken pox, hep B

B cells

attack antigens indirectly by producting antibodies that destroy antigens, provide active immunity, (immunizations) and passive immunity(immunoglobulin)



the four R's

recognize, respond, remember, regulate


self from nonself, normall the body recognizes its own cells as nonantigenic, therfore an immune response generally is triggered only in response to antigens except in autoimmune disorders


to non self invaders, the immune system responds in part by producing antibodies that target specific antigens for destruction, new antibodies are produce in response to new antigens if not can result in immunodeficiency disorders


the invader, the ability to remember antigens that have invaded the body in the past is the immune systems memory, allows a quicker response


it's action, self regulation allows the immune system to monitor itself by turning on when an antigen invades and turning off when the invasion has been eradicated, regulation prevents the destruction of healthy or host tissue, unable to do this results in chronic inflammation and damage to the host tissue

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