Terms in this set (62)
causative agent of anthrax
who can be affected by anthrax
most mammals and some birds
What kinds of soil is anthrax common in
-periods of flooding
How do people get affected by anthrax?
-scratches/abrasions of skin
-eating insufficiently cooked infected meat
-inhalation of spores
3 forms of anthrax in humans
(related to transmission route)
most common form of anthrax in humans
What is the common finding with cutaneous anthrax?
clinical signs of gastrointestinal anthrax
(T/F) gastrointestinal anthrax has a high case fatality rate
clinical signs in human with inhaled anthrax
-biphasic clinical pattern (initial flu-like symptoms followed by fever, septic shock, and death)
(T/F) Survival is rare with inhaled anthrax
common radiographic finding in humans with inhaled anthrax
When should anthrax be reported?
-confirmed or suspicious cases should be reported immediately to the board of animal health
What is important to NEVER do on a suspect anthrax case?
What diagnostic should be done for suspect anthrax case
collect whole blood sample (or ear clip) for smear and culture
How should a carcass with anthrax be disposed of?
burn carcass and exposed dirt
How long should a farm with an anthrax case be quarantined?
at least 2 weeks past the last illness/death (Minnesota recommends a 30 day quarantine)
What is important to note when administering the anthrax vaccine
-it is a live culture vaccine, so can still cause disease
What species is the anthrax vaccine approved in?
What are the meat and milk withdrawal times for the anthrax vaccine?
-meat: 60 days
-milk: 3 days
What is the most common presenting illness among individuals with HIV (and a major cause of their death)
What mycobacterium is similar to tuberculosis by contracted from cows?
principle cause of cervical lymphadenopathy (scrofula)
milk-borne M. bovis infection
transmission routes of M. bovis to people
-consumption of unpasteurized milk
-inhalation of aerosols
-GI transmission (infected meat-theoretical only)
What population keeps M. bovis endemic in Michigan?
deer (the rest of the US is free)
What were some measures enacted in the US tuberculosis control program?
-mandatory milk pasteurization
-all slaughtered cattle subjected to veterinary inspection
What is the initial screening test done for bovine TB
caudal fold tuberculin test on caudal fold (accredited vet)
What is the confirmatory test done for bovine TB?
comparative cervical tuberculin (CCT) by district/federal vet
When was MN declared free of TB?
What mycobacterium species is typically not considered zoonotic
mycobacterium species that causes skin lesions in immunocompromised people that contact fish/marine animals
what mycobacterium species is postulated to cause Crohn's disease in people
What mycobacterium species causes Hanson's disease
M. leprae (leprosy- found in armadillos)
What is the most likely method of bovine TB transmission to humans in the US?
consumption of unpasteurized dairy products (like soft cheeses) from infected cattle
What 3 diseases does brucella cause in humans?
What brucella species causes the most severe dz in people (and natural host)
B. melitensis (goat/sheep natural host)
brucella species found in cattle
brucella species found in canids
in what species can B. suis be found in?
What brucella species can cause dz in humans?
What is the major transmission route of B. melitensis to humans?
foodborne (unpasteurized soft cheeses)
common name from brucella abortus infection
What is the main transmission route of B. abortus to people
clinical signs of B. abortus in cows
-reduced milk production
clinical signs of B. suis in pigs
What is an important exposure route for people to B. suis in the US now?
-exposure to feral swine herds/hunting
transmission routes for brucellosis to people
-contact with infected animals/tissues (fetus, fetal membranes, vaginal discharge)
-ingestion of raw milk/dairy products
What areas of the US is brucellosis seen more often? why?
(soft cheese import from Mexico)
(T/F) Brucellosis is commonly a severe disease in humans that often results in fatality
FALSE- usually asymptomatic, with <2% fatality from endocarditis
How long does brucellosis infection in people last?
days, months, to >1 year if not properly treated
common clinical signs of brucellosis
What are some complications that can be seen with brucellosis
-osteoarticular (arthritis, spondylitis, osteomyelitis, sacroilitis)
Why is brucellosis slaughter surveillance not commonly practiced anymore?
the cost going into the program was greater than the benefits (were not finding any positive animals)
What is the only remaining B. abortus reservoir in the US
bison and elk in the Yellowstone area
(T/F) certification of raw milk eliminates risk of Brucella transmission
FALSE- should pasteurize milk/dairy products
prevention/control methods for brucellosis
-eradicate animal reservoir
-avoid contact with infected materials
-adequate ventilation/reduced aerosol production in slaughter plants
-PPE when assisting with parturition/disposing of contaminated bedding or abortion products
What was a common issue with the old Strain 19 brucellosis vaccine in cattle?
-vets commonly inoculated themselves (resulted in severe brucellosis infections)
benefits of the new Strain RB51 brucellosis vaccine in cattle?
-no cross reaction with serology
-can still induce dz in people, but far less severe
clinical signs of brucella canis in dogs
What is required in Minnesota if a dog tests positive for brucella canis
-or permanent quarantine and isolation from other dogs
what was the main source of brucella canis infections in the PAST?
pet breeding establishments
what is the main source of brucella canis infections in the US today?
rescue/stray dogs (esp. from reservations, other areas of the country)