History Exam 1
Terms in this set (93)
Ralph Waldo Emerson
wrote "Self-Reliance;" Transcendentalist poet, essayist, speaker
Ralph Waldo Emerson's popular lecture-essay that struck a deeply responsive chord.
The fur-trapping empire was based on this system; French for "meeting". Each summer, traders ventured from St. Louis to verdant Rocky Mountain Valley, made camp,and waited for the trappers and Indians to arrive with beaver pelts to swap for manufactured goods from the east. This trade thrived for some two decades.
aggressive and often heedless exploitation of Western America's natural resources
a painter and student of Native American life who was among the first to advocate the preservation of nature as a national policy. In 1832 he observed Sioux Indians in South Dakota recklessly slaughtering buffalo in order to trade the animals tongues for the white mans whiskey and was appalled. His idea bore Yellowstone National Park in 1872.
period of mass starvation, disease and immigration in Ireland between 1845-52. A terrible rot attacked the potato crop
A shadowy Irish miners' union that rocked the Pennsylvania coal districts in the 1860s and 1870s.
fear of foreigners
Political party of the 1850s that was anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant; developed from the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner In 1849.
Maria Monk's sensational expose of alleged horrors in Catholic convents
Americans who opposed immigration
small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
A method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building
"Father of the Factory System", A skilled British mechanic attracted by bounties being offered to British workers familiar with textile machines. He memorized these machinery plans and took them to America and won the backing of Moses brown . Put into operation in 1791 the First efficient American machinery for spinning cotton thread
a quaker merchant who wanted to build a spinning mill in Rhode Island; he opened a mill with Slater
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
Francis Cabot Lowell
Established the first factory town and one of the first to hire women to work the factories
identical pieces that could be assembled quickly by unskilled workers widely adopted in 1850. It gave rise to a host of other innovations, including Samuel Colt's fabled revolver, and it ultimately became the basis of modern mass production, assembly-line methods. It gave to the North the vast industrial plant that ensured military preponderance over the South .
invented the sewing machine in 1846 and gave a strong boost to Northern industrialization
perfected the sewing machine
Weapons manufacturer whose popular revolver used Whitney's system of interchangeable parts
federal government bureau that reviews patent applications. In 1838 the clerk resigned in despair, complaining that all worthwhile inventions had been discovered. In 1800 only 306 parents were registered in Washington.
financial responsibility of business owners only for what they invested in a business. It aided the concentration of capital of capital by permitting the individual investor, in cases of legal claims or bankruptcy, to risk no more than his own share of the corporations earliest stock.
Samuel B. Morse
Invented the telegraph system and Morse code; tightened the sinews of an increasingly complex business world
United States inventor and manufacturer of a mechanical harvester (1809-1884)
United States inventor of vulcanized rubber (1800-1860)
Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 Landmark ruling of the Massachusetts supreme court establishing the legality of labor unions.
Cult of Domesticity
tradition that housework and child care were considered the only proper activites for married women
an expressway on which tolls are collected. Came about in 1790s with the Lancaster Turnpike in Pennsylvania, 62 miles.
road built by the federal government in the early 1800s that extended from Maryland to Illinois; also known as the Cumberland road. Westerners scored a notable triumph
Invented the steamboat
the steamboat Clermont had this as its common nickname.
Fulton's steamboat in 1807 which powered on/by a newly designed engine.
an artificial waterway connecting the Hudson river at Albany with Lake Erie at Buffalo. The land among the route skyrocketed and industry in the state boomed. It also brought economic and political changes.
United States politician who as governor of New York supported the project to build the Erie Canal
the first American built steam locomotive
a fast sailing ship with slender lines, tall masts, and large square sails
A system of messengers on horseback established in 1860 to carry mail across the United States.
river traffic, road building, canals (esp. Erie), rise of NYC. Rapid growth of transportation methods.
economic changes from the political upheavals of the antebellum era where people buy and sell goods rather than make them themselves. Transformed a substinence economy of scattered farms and tiny workshops into a national network of industry and commerce.
a change in position within the social hierarchy "rags to riches"
The austere rigor of this religion had been seeping out of the American Churches.
Wrote the Age of Reason (1794). Promotes deism
The Age of Reason
Thomas Paige's book that shockingly declared that all churches were "set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit".
Religion that relied on Reason rather than revelation, on science rather than the Bible. They rejected the concept of original sin and denied Christ's divinity. Yet they believed in a Supreme Being who created a knowable universe and endowed human beings with a capacity for moral behavior. They helped inspire Unitarians.
An important spinoff from the severe Puritanism of the past inspired by Deism. It began to gather momentum in New England at the end of the eighteenth century. They held that God only existed in ONE person and not in the orthodox trinity. Although denying the deity of Jesus, they stressed the essential goodness of human nature rather than its vileness; they proclaimed their belief in free will and the possibility of salvation through good works; they pictured God not as a stern creator but as a loving father. Embraced by Ralph Waldo Emerson and appealed mostly to intellectuals whose rationalism and optimism contrasted sharply with the hellfire doctrines of Calvinism.
The Second Great Awakening
A boiling reaction against the growing liberalism in religion set in about 1800. A fresh wave of roaring revivals, beginning on the southern frontier but soon rolling even into the cities of the northeast surged across the land. One of the most momentous episodes in history of American Religion. Left in its wake countless converted souls, many shattered and reorganized churches , and numerous new sects. Feminized religion
(1785-1872) the best known of Methodist "circuit riders," or traveling frontier preachers. This I'll-educated but sinewy servant of the Lord ranged for a half century from Tennessee to Illinois, calling upon sinners to repent. With a bellowing voice and flailing arms , he converted thousands of souls to the Lord. Not only did he lash the devil with his tongue, but with his fists he knocked out rowdies who tried to break up his meetings.
Charles Grandison Finney
The greatest of the revival preachers. Trained as a lawyer, he abandoned the bar to become an evangelist after a deeply moving conversion experience as a young man. Tall and athletically built, Finney held huge crowds spellbound with the power of his oratory and the pungency of his message. He led massive revivals in Rochester and NYC in 1830 and 1831. Finney preached a version of old time religion but was also an innovator. Encouraged people to pray aloud in public and held out the promise of a perfect Christian Kingdom on Earth. President of Oberlin College in Ohio
Traveling frontier preacher
Burned over district
Western New York where many descendants of New England Puritans settled that was so blistered by sermonizers preaching "hellfire and damnation". Millerites rose from its superheated soil
Also called adventists. Named after William Miller and interpreted the Bible to mean that Christ would return to Earth on October 22, 1844. They gathered in prayerful assemblies to meet their redeemer but Jesus' failure to descend on that date did not destroy their movement.
A rugged visionary, proud of his prowess at wrestling that reported that he had received some golden plates from an angel. When deciphered, they constituted the Book of Mormon, and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints was launched. Smith was reported to have several wives. In 1844 he and his brother were murdered and mangled by a mob in Carthage, Illinois
Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints. It was a Native American product launched in 1830. Led by a Joseph Smith then Brigham Young. Made the desert bloom with irrigation.
Joseph Smith's falling torch was seized by this remarkable Mormon Moses. Stern and austere in contrast to Smith's charm and affability, he had only received 11 daysof formal schooling but quickly proved to be an aggressive leader, eloquent preacher, and a gifted administrator . Married 27 women and had 56 children
Salt Lake City
Where Brigham Young led the Mormons in 1846-47 and made a prosperous community
(1796-1859) a brilliant and idealistic graduate of Brown University. As secretary of the Massachussetts board of education, he campaigned effectively for more and better schoolhouses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers and an expanded curriculum
(1758-1843) a Yale-educated Connecticut Yankee who was known as the "Schoolmaster of the Republic". His "reading lessons" used by millions of children in the nineteenth century were partly designed to promote patriotism. He devoted twenty years to his famous dictionary published in 1828
(1800-1873) a teacher-preacher of rare power from Ohio, equally as influential as Noah Webster. His grade school readers, first published in the 1830s, sold 122 million copies in the following decades. They hammered home lasting lessons in morality, patriotism, and idealism
(1787-1870) helped women's schools attain some respectability in the 1820's due to her dedicated work. In 1821 she established the Troy Female Seminary.
An Ohio college that jolted traditionalists in 1837 when it opened its doors to women as well as men
Lecture associations that provided platforms for speakers in areas such as science, literature, and moral philosophy
(1892-1887) physically frail woman who pushed for changes in the treatment of the mentally ill and founded 32 mental hospitals. She was a New England teacher author
American Temperance Society
a group established in Boston of 1826 for the reform and abstinence of alcohol
Cold Water Army
children's clubs started by the American Temperance Society
Maine Law of 1851
first state law to ban the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages sponsored by Neil S Dow
Neil S. Dow
Considered the "Father of the Prohibition". A blue nosed reformer and mayor of Portland
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
organized Seneca Falls Convention, founded (with Anthony) National Women Suffrage Organization
Susan B. Anthony
An American social reformer and feminist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement.
Quaker women's rights advocate who also strongly supported abolition of slavery
sisters for abolition and women's rights; Sara and Angelina
an advocate for women's rights who was also a successful writer. Edited the transcendentalism journal The Dial. Died in a shipwreck returning from italy
women's rights advocate who created the bloomers
Seneca Falls Convention
the first national women's rights convention in 1848 at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written
Declaration of Sentiments
document modeled after the Declaration of Independence listed the injustices towards women
the goal to create an ideal society based on cooperation and economic self-sufficiency
Utopian community established in upstate New York in 1848 by John Humphrey Noyes and his followers.
The followers of Mother Ann Lee, who preached a religion of strict celibacy and communal living.virtually extinct by 1940
drugs that can be obtained without a prescription
The Federalist Papers
a series of essays written in support of the Constitution to build support for its ratification by Alexander Hamilton, Jay, and nadison
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
(1783-1859) the first American to win international recognition as a literary figure. Rip van winkle, sleepy hollow, etc.
James Fenimore Cooper
First United States novelist noted for his stories of indians and the frontier life (1789-1851)
William Cullen Bryant
(1794-1878) wrote thanatopsis. Made poetry and edited the New York Evening Post. Set a model for journalism
A writer's club founded by Washington Irving, James Fennimore Cooper, and William Cullen Bryant. Drew on regional and national themes
philosophy that emphasized the truth to be found in nature and intuition
English philosopher who argued that people have natural rights. Life, liberty, property
Henry David Thoreau
Transcendentalist; civil disobedience; gov. that violates individual morality has no legit authority
Philosopher- belived humans are naturally evil, monarchy
Unrestrained celebration of democracy; liberation of individual; broke traditional forms of verse
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow