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Genetic disorders can be categorized into what 3 disorders.

autosomal dominant,
autosomal recessive,
sex-linked (X-linked) recessive

caused by a mutation of a single gene pair (heterozygous) on a chromosome.

autosomal dominant

caused by a mutation in two gene pairs (homozygous) on a chromosome.

autosomal recessive

caused by a mutation on the X chromosome.

sex-linked (x-linked)

name the 4 types of genetic testing

direct testing,
linkage testing,
biochemical testing,

An experimental technique used to replace or repair defective or missing genes with normal genes.

gene therapy

cells in the body that have the ability to differentiate into other cells

stem cells

what are the 2 types of stem cells


state of responsiveness to foreign substances such as microorganisms and tumor proteins


Immune responses serve what three functions:

defense, homeostasis, and surveillance.

how many autosomes are there?


how many sex chromosomes are there



gene that is able to initiate and contribute to the conversion of normal cells to cancerous cells

direct testing examines

the DNA

keryotype examines

the number, form, size and arrangement of chromosomes

what is the genetic test for breast cancer

BRCA-1 and BRCA-2

what do all states genetically test every newborn for

congenital hypothyroidism

Innate immunity-define, and what type of response

exists in the body without any prior contact with the antigen

Active aquired immunity

develops antibodies to new invaders (antigens) from either disease or inocculation with antigens

passive aquired immunity

host receives antibodies rather than making them (mother, injection)

name the central lymphoid organs

thymus gland
bone marrow

name the peripheral lymph organs

lymph nodes

where are lymphocytes made and shipped to

bone marrow

if this is depleted, the skin cannot mount an immune response

langerhan's (dendrites)

The important primary site for filtering foreign substances

the spleen

the major site of immune response to blood borne antigens


what two types of tissue does the spleen consist of

white pulp containing B and T lymphocytes
red pulp containing erythrocytes

These guys are responsible for capturing, processing, and presenting the antigen to the lymphocytes

mononuclear phagocytes

what are the lyphocytes called when they are shipped to the thymus

T-cells (thymus dependent cells)

all mature t-cells have what antigen



T cytotoxic
attack foriegn antigens and release deadly cytolytic agents


T helper cells that initiate phagocytosis

Natural killer cells

responsible for recognizing and killing virus, tumor, and transplanted grafts

dendritic cells

capture and present antigens to t-cells


messengers between cells

name the 5 main types of cytokines

Tumor necrosis factor
Colony-stimulating factors

Inhibit viral replication, activate NK cells and macrophages, keep tumor cells at bay

alpha and beta interferons (a-IFN, b-IFN)

inhibits viral replication, activates NK, neutrophils, and macrophages. promotes B-cell differentiation.

gamma interferon (y-IFN)

responsible for weight loss in chronic inflammation and cancer, kills tumor cells, activates macrophages and granulocytes

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

stimulates proliferation and differentiation of neutrophils, enhances functional activity of PMN's

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)

Stimulates proliferation and differentiation of PMN's and monocytes

Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)

Promotes proliferation, differentiation, and activation of monocytes and macrophages

Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF)

stimulates erythroid progenitor cells in bone marrow to produce RBC's


IgG: serum concentration. location. characteristics

Plasma, interstitial fluid
only immunoglobin that can cross the placenta, responsible for secondary immune response

IgA: serum concentration. location. characteristics

Body secretions
Lines mucous membranes and protects body surface

IgM: serum concentration. location. characteristics

Primary immune response, forms antibodies to ABO,

IgD: serum concentration. location. characteristics.

present on lymphocyte surface, assists with B lymphocyte differentiation

IgE: serum concentration. location. characteristics.

plasma, interstitial fluids
Causes symptoms of allergic reactions, fixes to mast and basophils, assists with defense to parasites

List the 4 types of hypersensitivity reactions

1. IgE mediated
2. Cytotoxic
3. Immune complex
4. Delayed hypersensitivity

What are type 1 hypersensitivity reactions


What are type 2 hypersensitivity reactions

Blood transfusions (blood clumping)

What are type 3 hypersensitivity reactions

autoimmune (RA, SLE)

What are type 4 hypersensitivity reactions

Contact dermatitis
microbial (TB)

what are some atopic reactions

allergic rhinitis (hay fever)
atopic dermatitis

_____________ is the recommended treatment for control of allergic symptoms when the allergen cannot be avoided and drug therapy is not effective.


What 2 types of latex allergies can occur?

type IV allergic contact dermatitis and type I allergic reactions.

an acquired disorder in which certain people exposed to various foods and chemicals in the environment have many symptoms related to multiple body systems.

Multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS

The ______ ______ _______ ______ system consists of a series of linked genes that occur together on the sixth chromosome in humans.

human leukocyte antigen (HLA)

Because of its importance in the study of tissue matching, the chromosomal region incorporating the ___ ____ is termed the major histocompatibility complex.

HLA genes

Immunodeficiency disorders are _______ if the immune cells are improperly developed or absent


When are immunodeficiency disorders considered secondary

if the deficiency is caused by illnesses or treatment.

Rejection of organs occurs if the donor organ does not perfectly match the recipient's


Organ transplantation rejection can be prevented by closely matching what

ABO, Rh, and HLAs between donor and recipient.

The three types of organ rejection can be classified as

hyperacute, acute, and chronic.

what is the goal of immunosuppressive therapy

to adequately suppress the immune response to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ while maintaining sufficient immunity to prevent overwhelming infection.

Commonly used immunosuppressive drugs include

corticosteroids, cyclosporine, tacrolimus (Prograf), and mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept).

What is important to asses for identifying at risk patients for allergic reactions

family history, especially atopic reactions

Cellular immunodeficiency is diagnosed if the lymphocyte count is below


The _________ count in a CBC with WBC diff is elevated with type I hypersensitivity reactions involving IgE immunoglobins


what are some allergies that cannot be treated with immunotherapy

food and eczema

what is the mechanism of action in immunotherapy

the binding of IgG to the allergen interferes with allergen binding to mast cell bound IgE', preventing mast cell degranulation

how long does immunotherapy last

1 to 2 years, but may be continued up to 5

early signs of a systemic allergic reaction include:

pruritis, sneezing, itching, urticaria, laryngeal edema, and hypotension

a local reaction should be described according to

the degree of redness and swelling at injection site. if the area is bigger than the size of a quarter, it should be reported

How should the nurse administer an allergen extract

away from the joint so a turniquet can be applied.
aspirate for blood so you know ur not in a vessel
observe PT for 20 min.

what are the two types of latex allergies

type IV allergic contact dermatitis
type I

what happens in a type IV allergy to latex

delayed reaction 6-48 hours
dryness, itching, fissuring, cracking of skin
followed by redness swelling and crusting 24-48 hours later

what happens in a type I allergy to latex

skin redness, urticaria, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, or full blown anaphylatic shock

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