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Terms in this set (19)
Describe the overall function of the respiratory system
Supplies O2 and removes waste CO2
Identify the force that moves air into and out of the lungs
Changes in lung volume produces the pressure differences which moves air in and out of the lungs.
List the conditioning effects of the nasal passageways
Warmed, filtered and humidified
Explain what is meant by "mucus escalator"
Goblet cells produce mucus, which catches dirt and dust in the air, and ciliated epithelium moves the mucus.
Identify the muscle responsible for quiet inspiration
Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles.
Identify the cause of air movement during quiet expiration
Relaxing of the diaphragm and internal intercostal muscles.
Describe the location and function of the external and
internal intercostal muscles
External- outer part of the rib to inner part of next lower rib. Raise the rib cage upwards and outwards.(Inspiration)
Internal- inner part of the rib to the outer part of the next upper rib. Help shrink the thoracic cavity. (Expiration)
Identify the components of elastic recoil of the lungs/chest
Inspiratory muscles: Relax
Thoracic Cavity: Contracts
Abdominal muscles: Compress
Write the Law of Laplace and explain its significance for
r-radius of the sphere
Predicts instability within alveoli.
Explain why intrapleural pressure is nearly always negative
Pressure within the pleural cavity is always negative. Acts like a suction to keep the lungs inflated.
Explain why a pneumothorax collapses the lungs
A puncture in the chest wall causes air to enter the intrapleural space causing the pressure to be equal inside and outside the lungs. Prevents the lung from recoiling.
Four Core Aspects of Respiratory Physiology
Pulmonary ventilation: a volume of gas is added/removed from the lungs.
Gas Exchange: blood is recharged with O2 and CO2 is removed
Gas transport: from lungs to tissues
Regulation of ventilation: control
Identify on a spirometer trace and be able to calculate TV,
IRV, ERV, and RV
TV- Tidal Volume: Normal in and out (.5L)
IRV- Inspiratory Reserve Volume: Additional inspiration(3L)
ERV- Expiratory Reserve Volume: Additional expiration (1.1L)
RV- Reserve Volume: What's left (1.2L)
Identify on a spirometer trace and be able to calculate IC, VC, FRC, and TLC
IC- Inspiratory Capacity: Vol inspired after tidal expiration(IRV+TV=3.5L)
VC- Vital Capacity: Sum of all volumes above RV(ERV+IRV+TV=4.6L)
FRC- Functional Residual Capacity: Vol left after tidal expir(RV+ERV=2.3L)
TLC- Total Lung Capacity: All lung volumes (IRV+TV+IRV+RV=5.8L)
Define the respiratory minute volume and pulmonary ventilation
RR- Respiratory Rate
TV- Tidal Volume
Indicate how a spirometer can measure airway resistance
Qv- the flow in volume per unit time
The change in the pressure can be measured on the spirometer
Distinguish between laminar and turbulent flow
Laminar Flow-resistance that is independent of flow
Qv=(pi*a^4)/8nI (delta P)
Turbulent flow- produces a non-linear relation between flow and pressure difference.
Write the equation for the Reynolds number and be able to
predict when flow is turbulent
a- radius of airway
<V>- average airflow velocity
p- density of air
Re>2500 generally turbulent
Define dynamic compression
When the intrapleural pressure equals/exceeds the alveolar pressure. Causes collapsing lung.
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