22 terms

Psych 210 Chapter 20

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Author of the influential 1951 neuropsychological paper "The problem of serial order in behavior," that stimulated the development of the new cognitive psychology. (p. 625)
Karl S. Lashley
Author of the 1967 book Cognitive Psychology, one of the most influential works of the cognitive revolution. (p. 627)
Ulrich Neisser
The landmark 1960 paper, "The American revolution" was his 1959 presidential address as President of the APA. He called for a rigorous development in the area of cognitive psychology to continue the tradition of Watson's 1913 revolution in the founding of behaviorism. (p. 627)
Donald O. Hebb
Ulrich Neisser's mentor, and author of the well-known 1956 paper "The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information." This paper came out of the 1956 Symposium on Information Theory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, that many see as marking the beginning of modern cognitive psychology. (p. 625)
George A. Miller
Author of the 1959 paper "Review of Skinner's Verbal Behavior," perhaps the single most important factor in destroying the consensus about behaviorism and launching modern cognitive psychology. (p. 626, and p. 616 of chapter 19)
Noam Chomsky
English psychologist who published the 1957 paper "A mechanical model for human attention and immediate memory," in which he introduced a theory of mechanical filters to explain human attention. (p. 625)
Donald E. Broadbent
Prominent mathematician and computer scientist who published the 1950 paper "Computing machinery and intelligence," in which he introduced the "Turing test." (p. 629)
Alan M. Turing
Philosopher who is well known for his 1990 Scientific American article "Is the brain's mind a computer program?," in which he articulates the "Chinese Room" rebuttal to the claims of "strong artificial intelligence." (p. 629)
John E. Searle
Articulated "Hebb's Rule" before Hebb, in the 1943 paper in the Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, entitled "A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity." (p. 638)
W. S. MCulloch and W. Pitts
Introduced Parallel Distributed Processing with the 1986 two-volume work, Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition. This new approach to artificial intelligence is also referred to as "the new connectionism," and "neural nets." It has in many ways upstaged GOFAI ("good old-fashioned AI") as the major approach to information-processing cognitive psychology. (p. 637)
D. E. Rumelhart, J. L. McClelland, and others
Referred to by Hergenhahn as "the black knight of AI," because of his strong criticism over many years of various approaches to artificial intelligence, including his critique of the new connectionism in his 1992 book What computers still can't do. (p. 638)
Hubert L. Dryfus
n his 1976 book Cognition and reality, ____________ strongly criticized the development of cognitive psychology along "information processing" lines in the ten years since his initial book on cognition. (p. 634)
Ulrich Neisser
Wrote the 1960 book Plans and the Structure of Behavior, which argued strongly for replacing behaviorism with an objective but more adequate approach to human behavior based upon information theory, cybernetics, and information processing science. (p. 626)
Miller, Galanter, and Pribram
Hergenhahn views the concepts in the 1979 book Cognitive psychology and information processing, authored by _________________, as having much in common with the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, but Kant would probably disavow the book, notwithstanding its popularity in the development of cognitive psychology throughout the 1980s. (p. 634)
R. Lachman, J. L. Lachman, and E. C. Butterfield
The 1958 Psychological Review article "Elements of a theory of problem solving," by ________________, is generally agreed to mark the transition between artificial intelligence and information-processing psychology. (p. 632)
A. Newell, J. C. Shaw, and H. A. Simon
In the area of social psychology, the influential 1957 book, A theory of cognitive dissonance by _______________, did much to shift attention from behavioristic approaches and toward the emergence of the new cognitive psychology. (p. 626)
Leon Festinger
In his 1926 book, The language and thought of the child, this eminent psychologist anticipated the emergence half a century later of the modern approach to cognitive psychology. He was a prolific writer, exceeding even Wundt. He published 62935 pages, which makes 2.46 pages per day, compared to Wundt's 53735 pages (2.2 pages per day). (p. 624)
Jean Piaget
One of the earliest works in the emergence of the modern approach to cognitive psychology was the 1956 book A study of thinking by __________________. In contrast to the associationistic approaches that had been taken to concept learning in American psychology, these authors stressed active cognitive strategies. (p. 626)
Jerome Bruner, Jacqueline Goodnow, and George Austin
In his classic 1949 book on neuropsychology, The Organization of Behavior, _________________ not only sought biological explanations for behavior, but also urged the study of cognitive processes. (p. 625)
Donald O. Hebb
In the 1948 book Cybernetics, _____________ laid much of the groundwork for modern cognitive psychology by a careful study of the structure and function of information-processing systems and feedback loops. (p. 625)
Norbert Wiener
In 1962, _____________published the paper "Some psychological studies of grammar" in the American Psychologist. This paper introduced the Chomskian nativistic approach to language within the field of psychology. (p. 626)
George A. Miller
Author of the influential 1955 paper "Drive and CNS (Conceptual Nervous System)," an earnest attempt to explain cognition neurologically. (p. 625-626)
Donald O. Hebb