animals and other organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight or inorganic substances
use energy from sunlight or from chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compounds
the oxygen and some of the organic compounds produced by photosynthesis are used by cells in this process
light energy is converted to chemical energy, which is temporarily stored in ATP and the energy carrier molecule in NADPH
organic compounds are formed using CO2 and the chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH
6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is the equation of photosynthesis?
Where does the light reactions, beginning with the absorption of light occur? They are organelles found in the cells of plants, some bacteria, and algae
white light from the sun composed of an array of colors
absorbs certain colors of light and reflect or transmit the other colors
located in the membrane of the thylakoids of chloroplast are several pigments, including chlorophylls (such as chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b) and cartenoids
light to chemical
What kind of energy conversion occurs during photosynthesis?
The pigments are grouped in clusters of a few hundred molecules in the thylakoid membrane. Each cluster and the proteins that the pigment molecules are embedded in
primary electron acceptor
the acceptor of electrons from photosystem II is this molecule
electron transport chain
the acceptor of these electrons from photosystem II is a molecule called the primary electron acceptor, which donates the electrons to this
the movement of protons through ATP synthase into the stroma releases energy, which is used to produce ATP
the Calvin Cycle
the ATP and NADPH produced in the light reactions drive the second stage of photosynthesis; is a series of enzyme-assisted chemical reactions that produces a three-carbon sugar.
the process in the Calvin cycle, CO2 is incorporated into organic compounds
stroma of the chloroplast
Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?
some plants that evolved in hot, dry climates fix carbon through this; these plants have their stomata partially closed during the hottest part of the day
some other plants that evolved in hot, dry climates fix carbon through this; these plants carry out carbon fixation at night and the Calvin cycle during the day to minimize water loss.
light intensity, carbon dioxide levels, and temperature
What factors effect photosynthesis?
the Krebs Cycle
step in cellular respiration where the carbon molecules and made into 8 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP while releasing CO2. (Step 2 in cellular respiration)
the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid. (the first step of cellular respiration)
What is a reactant in the Calvin cycle?
when water is split
Oxygen is produced at what point during photosynthesis?
Which part of the chloroplast is associated with light reactions?
light reactions is to ATP as Calvin cycle is to ____?
is the process by which cells break down organic compounds to produce ATP
one six-carbon glucose molecule is oxidized to form two three-carbon pyruvic acid molecules
A net yield of ___ ___ molecules is produced for every molecule of glucose that undergoes glycolysis.
If oxygen is not present, some cells can convert pyruvic acid into other compounds through additional biochemical pathways that occur in the cytosol. The combination of glycolysis and these additional pathways is _____.
Fermentation does not produce ATP, but it does regenerate _____, which allows for the continued production of ATP through glycolysis.
lactic acid fermentation
an enzyme converts pyruvic acid into another three-carbon compound, called lactic acid
Some plants and unicellular organisms, such as yeast, use a process called _____ _____ to convert pyruvic acid into ethyl alcohol and CO2.
Through glycolysis, only about _____ of the energy available from the oxidation of glucose is captured as ATP.
Much of the energy originally contained in glucose is still held in _____ _____.
Glycolysis alone or as part of fermentation is not very _____ at transferring energy from glucose to ATP.
Where does the Krebs Cycle occur?
only occurs if oxygen is present in the cell
In the mitochondrial matrix, pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis reacts with coenzyme A to form _____ _____. Then, it enters the Krebs cycle.
NADH and FADH2
One glucose molecule is completely broken down in two turns of the Krebs cycle. These two turns produce four CO2 molecules, two ATP molecules, and hydrogen atoms that are used to make six _____ and two _____ molecules.
_____ (hydrogen ions, H+) are also given up by NADH and FADH2.
ATP synthase and Oxygen
As protons move through ___ _____ and down their concentration and electrical gradients, ATP is produced. _____ combines with the electrons and protons to form water.
What must pyruvic acid be converted into before the Krebs cycle can proceed?
NAD+ is regenerated for use in glycolysis
What occurs in lactic acid fermentation?
ATP is synthesized in chemiosmosis when what moves across the inner mitochondrial membrane?
glycolysis is to pyruvic acid as Krebs cycle is to _____.
glucose; more bonds
What molecule has the most chemical energy and why?
Which organisms for the foundation of food chains?
Can energy be recycled?
True or false. Glucose is the "food" produced by photosynthesis.
True or false. All living things need energy to carry out all life processes.
flat sac in a chloroplast where photosynthesis takes place
created as a "proton pump" uses the energy from excited electrons to actively transport H+ into the thylakoid space
a green substance that absorbs light and is found in photosystem 1 and 11
makes carbohydrates from carbon dioxide
What does the Calvin Cycle photosynthesize?
carbon dioxide (CO2)
What must be present for the final stage (Calvin Cycle) of photosynthesis to occur?
oxygen, ATP, NADPH
What 3 substances are formed by the light reactions?
What substance is an end product of photosynthesis?