61 terms

Biology H Unit 4

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heterotrophs
animals and other organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight or inorganic substances
autotrophs
use energy from sunlight or from chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compounds
cellular respiration
the oxygen and some of the organic compounds produced by photosynthesis are used by cells in this process
light reactions
light energy is converted to chemical energy, which is temporarily stored in ATP and the energy carrier molecule in NADPH
Calvin Cycle
organic compounds are formed using CO2 and the chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH
6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is the equation of photosynthesis?
chloroplasts
Where does the light reactions, beginning with the absorption of light occur? They are organelles found in the cells of plants, some bacteria, and algae
visible spectrum
white light from the sun composed of an array of colors
pigments
absorbs certain colors of light and reflect or transmit the other colors
chloroplast pigments
located in the membrane of the thylakoids of chloroplast are several pigments, including chlorophylls (such as chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b) and cartenoids
light to chemical
What kind of energy conversion occurs during photosynthesis?
photosystem
The pigments are grouped in clusters of a few hundred molecules in the thylakoid membrane. Each cluster and the proteins that the pigment molecules are embedded in
primary electron acceptor
the acceptor of electrons from photosystem II is this molecule
electron transport chain
the acceptor of these electrons from photosystem II is a molecule called the primary electron acceptor, which donates the electrons to this
chemiosmosis
the movement of protons through ATP synthase into the stroma releases energy, which is used to produce ATP
the Calvin Cycle
the ATP and NADPH produced in the light reactions drive the second stage of photosynthesis; is a series of enzyme-assisted chemical reactions that produces a three-carbon sugar.
carbon fixation
the process in the Calvin cycle, CO2 is incorporated into organic compounds
stroma of the chloroplast
Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?
G3P
three-carbon sugars
RuBP
five-carbon sugar
C4 Pathway
some plants that evolved in hot, dry climates fix carbon through this; these plants have their stomata partially closed during the hottest part of the day
CAM pathway
some other plants that evolved in hot, dry climates fix carbon through this; these plants carry out carbon fixation at night and the Calvin cycle during the day to minimize water loss.
light intensity, carbon dioxide levels, and temperature
What factors effect photosynthesis?
the Krebs Cycle
step in cellular respiration where the carbon molecules and made into 8 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP while releasing CO2. (Step 2 in cellular respiration)
glycolysis
the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid. (the first step of cellular respiration)
CO2
What is a reactant in the Calvin cycle?
when water is split
Oxygen is produced at what point during photosynthesis?
thylakoid membrane
Which part of the chloroplast is associated with light reactions?
G3P
light reactions is to ATP as Calvin cycle is to ____?
cellular respiration
is the process by which cells break down organic compounds to produce ATP
glycolysis
one six-carbon glucose molecule is oxidized to form two three-carbon pyruvic acid molecules
two ATP
A net yield of ___ ___ molecules is produced for every molecule of glucose that undergoes glycolysis.
fermentation
If oxygen is not present, some cells can convert pyruvic acid into other compounds through additional biochemical pathways that occur in the cytosol. The combination of glycolysis and these additional pathways is _____.
NAD+
Fermentation does not produce ATP, but it does regenerate _____, which allows for the continued production of ATP through glycolysis.
lactic acid fermentation
an enzyme converts pyruvic acid into another three-carbon compound, called lactic acid
alcoholic fermentation
Some plants and unicellular organisms, such as yeast, use a process called _____ _____ to convert pyruvic acid into ethyl alcohol and CO2.
2%
Through glycolysis, only about _____ of the energy available from the oxidation of glucose is captured as ATP.
pyruvic acid
Much of the energy originally contained in glucose is still held in _____ _____.
efficient
Glycolysis alone or as part of fermentation is not very _____ at transferring energy from glucose to ATP.
mitochondrial matrix
Where does the Krebs Cycle occur?
aerobic respiration
only occurs if oxygen is present in the cell
acetyl CoA
In the mitochondrial matrix, pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis reacts with coenzyme A to form _____ _____. Then, it enters the Krebs cycle.
NADH and FADH2
One glucose molecule is completely broken down in two turns of the Krebs cycle. These two turns produce four CO2 molecules, two ATP molecules, and hydrogen atoms that are used to make six _____ and two _____ molecules.
protons
_____ (hydrogen ions, H+) are also given up by NADH and FADH2.
ATP synthase and Oxygen
As protons move through ___ _____ and down their concentration and electrical gradients, ATP is produced. _____ combines with the electrons and protons to form water.
acetyl CoA
What must pyruvic acid be converted into before the Krebs cycle can proceed?
NAD+ is regenerated for use in glycolysis
What occurs in lactic acid fermentation?
protons
ATP is synthesized in chemiosmosis when what moves across the inner mitochondrial membrane?
ATP
glycolysis is to pyruvic acid as Krebs cycle is to _____.
glucose; more bonds
What molecule has the most chemical energy and why?
producers
Which organisms for the foundation of food chains?
no
Can energy be recycled?
true
True or false. Glucose is the "food" produced by photosynthesis.
true
True or false. All living things need energy to carry out all life processes.
thylakoid
flat sac in a chloroplast where photosynthesis takes place
concentration gradient
created as a "proton pump" uses the energy from excited electrons to actively transport H+ into the thylakoid space
chlorophyll
a green substance that absorbs light and is found in photosystem 1 and 11
makes carbohydrates from carbon dioxide
What does the Calvin Cycle photosynthesize?
carbon dioxide (CO2)
What must be present for the final stage (Calvin Cycle) of photosynthesis to occur?
oxygen, ATP, NADPH
What 3 substances are formed by the light reactions?
carbohydrates
What substance is an end product of photosynthesis?