Period of birth to 12 months
Which Erikson phase applies to infancy?
Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1 yr)
Which Piaget phase applies to infancy?
Sensorimotor phase (birth to 24 mths)
When does solitary or one-sided play emerge?
At what age does child start imitating sounds?
At what age does child associate meaning to sounds?
Interventions for difficult temperament
routine and structure
Interventions for highly distractible temperament
soothing measures, swing
Interventions for high activity temperament
extra safety precautions
interventions for easy child temperament
reminders to be vigilant with feeding schedules
when should head lag disappear by?
when does teething begin?
when does object permanence begin?
when can child stand with furniture support?
when does crude pincer grasp emerge?
when can child sit without support?
how many words can 12 month old say?
when can child walk with one-handed support?
What does the Denver II (DDST-II) assess?
four sectors of development:
- fine motor/adaptive
- gross motor
What does the Bayley Scale of Infant Development test?
- fine motor
accomplished through play tasks
when is Bayley Scale used?
What is the Ages and Stages tool?
a survey for parents to fill out (lengthy)
What supplements does an infant receiving breastmilk need?
What does iron supplement cause in infants?
How much Vit D should infants take?
What may happen if infants receive water in addition to breastmilk?
how long does refrigerated breast milk last?
how long does frozen breast milk last?
What supplement is needed for formula-fed babies?
What can too much fluoride cause?
tooth discoloration in children
Fruit juice is not recommended before:
Cows milk is not recommended before:
How many bottles does a formula-fed baby need?
1 month - 6
6 months - 4-5
Average volume of feed for formula-fed babies
introducing cow's milk too early can cause:
Why wait until 6 months to introduce solids?
-GI tract able to handle more complex nutrients
- teeth start to erupt
- extrusion reflex disappears
- swallowing is more coordinated
-head control present
-pincer grasp present
-improved hand/eye coordination
Foods that should not be introduced too early due to risk of allergy:
What is the first food that should be introduced to infants?
Iron-fortified cereal or rice cereal
Describe how new foods should be introduced
one at a time, wait 4-5 days between foods
How long should infant cereal be continued?
until 18 months
how much fruit juice should babies receive?
not more than 4-6 ounces a day
benefit of fruit juice
vitamine C helps absorb iron
serving size of infant cereal
S&Sxs of teething
increase in finger sucking
biting hard objects
What symptoms require medical examination?
what may happen if pacifier usage is continued after 4-6 yrs?
when does oral hygiene begin?
with first tooth
what type of oral hygiene can be used before six months?
when should baby get first dental exam?
at 6 months
Infant FOC is how much greater than chest circumference?
Signs of a food sensitivity in an infant
GI: abd pain, vomiting, diarrhea, cramping
Rsp: cough, wheezing, rhinitis, infiltrates
Cutaneous: urticaria, rash
infants: restlessness, irritability, listlessness, unresponsiveness, urticaria
if high risk of hereditary food allergy, exclusively breast feed until:
Colic affects what percent of infants?
S&Sxs of colic
loud crying, drawing legs up to abd
last longer than 3 hrs, 3 days a week at more than 3 months of age
Causes of colic
too rapid feeding
swallowing excessive air
improper feeding technique
Paroxysmal Abdominal Pain
drugs that may assist with colic
Failure to Thrive (FTT)
inadequate growth/inability to obtain or use calories required for growth (less than 5th percentile)
physical causes with absorption, cardiac issues, GERD, lead, anemia, occult blood, parasite
S&Sxs of FTT
no fear of strangers
avoidance of eye contact
stiff or flaccid
nursing care for FTT
set up a consistent, soothing feeding routine
Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum
Describe Newborn Rash
begins in first 2 days of life
firm lesions 1-2mm, pale yellow or white papules or pustules on an erythematous base
no systemic manifestations
lasts 5-7 days
How is candidiasis contracted in infancy?
contaminated source (hands, bottle, nipple)
Types of candidiasis
normal sleep in 3-4 months
9-11 hours at night, 15 hrs a day
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
under 1 yr
(95% before 6 months)
risk factors with SIDS
oblique or nonsymmetrical head shape from cranial molding
management of positional plagiocephaly
tummy time, alternate head position when lying
helmut can be used if necessary
normal number of diapers in an infant
6-8 in a 24 hour period
black tarry first stools (4-5 days)
differentiate breastfeeding and formula stool
formula stool -- less frequent
breastfed - yellow, seedy
S&Sxs of dehydration in infants
dry mucous membranes
fewer wet diapers
lack of tears
vital changes indicate late-stage
S&Sx of constipation in infants
infant strains with stooling
Causes of diarrhea in infants
pain relief for infants and immunizations
sucrose on a pacifier (or breastfeeding)
EMLA (requires 60 mins)
IM injections in infants: equipment
SubQ injections in infants: equipment
injected at 45 degrees
sites for injections in infants
vastus lateralis or ventrogluteal
written information for immunization documentation
site, route, tolerance of patient
name/address/title of person administering
VIS date (vaccine information statement)
leading cause of death in infants
most common injuries in infants
suffocation, MVAs, drownings
trauma and falls is more common in which age group and why?
under 7-9months due to poor depth perception
how long should rear-facing seat be used?
until 1 year and 20 lbs
Water heater should be set at what temp to prevent burns?
When does Moro reflex disappear?
When does rooting reflex disappear?
When does suck reflex develop?
Around 36th week of pregnancy
when does palmar grasp reflex disappear?
when does stepping reflex disappear?
when does Babinski reflex disappear?
Tonic Neck reflex
When baby's head is turned to one side while lying on her back, the same arm will extend and the opposite arm will bend (fencing reflex)
when does the tonic neck reflex disappear?
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