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Indictor bacteria are
All of the choices are correct (coliforms; gram-negative rods; evidence of fecal contamination; used in water quality tests)
Analysis of a water sample by a series of presumptive, confirmatory, and completed tests that help establish an estimate of coliform numbers in the water is called
most probable number (MPN) procedure
These bacteria ferment milk lactose, producing acids that curdle the milk:
Streptococcus lactis and Lactobacillus
This organism is used to initiate the fermentation of cabbage to make sauerkraut:
Which step in making beer involves sprouting and softening the barley to release amylases to act on starch, and proteases to digest protein?
Preservation of food to limit microbial survival and growth includes
All of the choices are correct (high temperature and pressure; pasteurization; refrigeration and freezing; irradiation)
The enzyme associated with the influenza virus that hydrolyzes the protective mucous coating of the respiratory tract is
Influenza infection can be treated with
All of the choices are correct (amantadine; rimantadine; zanamivir; oseltamivir)
associated with congenital transmission causing miscarriage, deafness, and cardiac and mental defects
All of the following pertain to patients with AIDS except:
highest number of cases worldwide is in the United States
All of the choices are correct (is transmitted by inhalation of respiratory secretions; is transmitted by skin lesion contact or airborne spread of lesion material; has an incubation of 10 to 20 days; has fever, and vesicular rash that occurs in successive crops)
Cytomegalovirus mononucleosis typically has fever and lymphocytosis, but in severely immunocompromised patients symptoms include
severe diarrhea, pneumonitis, hepatitis and retinitis
Hepatitis B virus
All of the choices are correct (is principally transmitted by blood; transmission risks include shared needles, anal intercourse, and heterosexual intercourse; is transmitted to the newborn from chronic carrier mothers; has many chronic carriers)
All of the choices are correct (nonenveloped, double-stranded, DNA viruses; transmitted by respiratory and ocular secretions; causes of conjunctivitis, common cold, and an acute hemorrhagic cystitis in children; causes of outbreaks among military recruits)
All of the choices are correct (cause common asymptomatic to mild infections; cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; cause problems in renal transplant patients; include the JC virus and BK virus)
All of the choices are correct (fungal infections of the skin, hair, and nails; also called ringworm; also called tineas; often time-consuming to eradicate completely)
Cholera symptoms are
All of the choices are correct (copious watery diarrhea; loss of blood volume; acidosis, sunken eyes, thirst; hypotension, tachycardia, shock)
The most immediate and important treatment needed to prevent death in Cholera victims is
water and electrolyte replacement
Helicobacter pylori causes
All of the choices are correct (gastritis; duodenal ulcers; stomach ulcers; increased risk for stomach cancer)
Characteristics of rickettsias include
All of the choices are correct (obligate parasites requiring host cells for growth; arthropods serve as life cycle hosts and vectors; gram negative coccobacilli; host cells are required for ATP metabolism)
All of the choices are correct (a zoonosis; seen in the patient as a fluctuating fever, with headache, muscle pain and weakness; associated with pathogen in the blood; an occupational illness of people that work with animals)
Which disease involves transmission by aerosolized water from whirlpool spas, air conditioners, cooling towers, and supermarket vegetable misters?
All of the choices are correct (not caused by Salmonella typhi; associated with undercooked poultry and eggs, and reptile and rodent feces; gastroenteritis with vomiting and diarrhea; enteric fevers that often include septicemia)
The gram negative bacillus associated with abscesses from dog and cat bites or scratches is
All of the choices are correct (a zoonosis; transmitted by contact, inhalation, and ingestion; a disease that, in humans, can cause a rapidly fatal toxemia and septicemia; only seen sporadically in the United States)
Production of a neurotoxin that binds to target sites on spinal cord neurons responsible for inhibiting skeletal muscle contraction is a characteristic of
Production of a neurotoxin that prevents acetylcholine release from motor neurons at neuromuscular junctions is a characteristic of
This organism can infect deeper wound sites and produce exotoxins, enzymes and gas that cause tissue and muscle necrosis:
has a cord factor that can prevent destruction by lysosomes and macrophages
Tuberculin skin testing
All of the choices are correct (injects PPD intradermally; uses a purified protein filtrate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis; will be positive if person has had previous exposure; will be positive in active TB)
A diagnosis of tuberculosis involves
All of the choices are correct (chest X-ray; acid fast stain of sputum; sputum culture; tuberculin skin test)
The Group A streptococcal infection that has symptoms of fever, edema of skin near portal of entry, and an elevated red, hot vesicular lesion is
The property of a test to detect even small amounts of antibodies or antigens that are test targets is
The property of a test to detect only a certain antibody or antigen, and not to react with any others, is
When serum proteins are separated by electrophoresis and then antibodies specific for the serum proteins are placed in a parallel trough in order to form reaction arcs for each protein, the test is called
Which of the following methods is categorized as a direct test in order to analyze a specimen?
All of the choices are correct (possess MHC antigens for recognizing self; have membrane receptors that recognize foreign antigens; gain tolerance to self by destruction of lymphocytes that could react against self; develop into clones of B and T cells with extreme variations of specificity)
bacterial toxins that activate T cells at a 100 times greater rate than other antigens.
The immunoglobulin class that has a dimer form found in mucus, saliva, colostrum, and other body secretions is
The immunoglobulin class that has an Fc region that binds to receptors on basophils and mast cells is
These lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells:
natural killer (NK) cells
All of the choices are correct (originate from a single B cell clone; have a single specificity for antigen; are secreted by hybridomas; are used in immunology lab tests and cancer therapy)
An example of artificial active immunity would be
chickenpox vaccine triggers extended immunity to chickenpox.
Which antibody confers the most important specific local immunity to enteric, respiratory, and genitourinary pathogens?
Immunotherapy is the
All of the choices are correct (use of antitoxins; use of immune serum globulin; conferring of passive immunity; administering of preformed antibodies)
Live, attenuated vaccines
All of the choices are correct (include the Sabin polio vaccine; include the measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (MMR); contain viable microbes that can multiply in the person; require smaller doses and fewer boosters compared to inactivated vaccines)
Acellular vaccines and subunit vaccines
contain selected antigenic components of a pathogen rather than whole cells or viruses
Which of the following is a special binding substance that enhances immugenicity and prolongs antigen retention at the injection site?
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