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Which is mismatched?

scavengers - feed on live to dead cells and wastes

The conversion of gaseous nitrogen (N2) to the ammonium ion (NH4+) occurs during

nitrogen fixation

Which of the following is a nitrifying microbe?


Using microbes to break down or remove toxic wastes in water and soil is called


Potable water is

safe to drink

Indictor bacteria are

All of the choices are correct (coliforms; gram-negative rods; evidence of fecal contamination; used in water quality tests)

Analysis of a water sample by a series of presumptive, confirmatory, and completed tests that help establish an estimate of coliform numbers in the water is called

most probable number (MPN) procedure

Which is the first step in water purification?


Water moves through sand beds and activated charcoal in this step of water purification:


The yeast used in making bread, beer, and wine is

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

These bacteria ferment milk lactose, producing acids that curdle the milk:

Streptococcus lactis and Lactobacillus

This organism is used to initiate the fermentation of cabbage to make sauerkraut:

Leuconostoc mesenteroides

This organism is used to make Swiss cheese:


What is made by adding Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus to milk?


Which step in making beer involves sprouting and softening the barley to release amylases to act on starch, and proteases to digest protein?


All of the following are foodborne pathogens except


Preservation of food to limit microbial survival and growth includes

All of the choices are correct (high temperature and pressure; pasteurization; refrigeration and freezing; irradiation)

Which is not used as a chemical preservative in food?


All of the following foods are preserved using high osmotic pressure except


The enzyme associated with the influenza virus that hydrolyzes the protective mucous coating of the respiratory tract is


Symptoms of influenza include

fever, myalgia, sore throat, cough, nasal discharge

Influenza infection can be treated with

All of the choices are correct (amantadine; rimantadine; zanamivir; oseltamivir)

Oral lesions called Koplik's spots are seen in patients with

measles (rubeola)

Which is incorrect about rabies?

average incubation in human is 1 week

Rubella is

associated with congenital transmission causing miscarriage, deafness, and cardiac and mental defects

All of the following pertain to patients with AIDS except:

highest number of cases worldwide is in the United States

An occasional serious complication of herpes simplex-1 is


Which of the following antivirals is not used for treatment of HSV-1 and HSV-2?



All of the choices are correct (is transmitted by inhalation of respiratory secretions; is transmitted by skin lesion contact or airborne spread of lesion material; has an incubation of 10 to 20 days; has fever, and vesicular rash that occurs in successive crops)

Cytomegalovirus mononucleosis typically has fever and lymphocytosis, but in severely immunocompromised patients symptoms include

severe diarrhea, pneumonitis, hepatitis and retinitis

Hepatitis B virus

All of the choices are correct (is principally transmitted by blood; transmission risks include shared needles, anal intercourse, and heterosexual intercourse; is transmitted to the newborn from chronic carrier mothers; has many chronic carriers)

Adenoviruses are

All of the choices are correct (nonenveloped, double-stranded, DNA viruses; transmitted by respiratory and ocular secretions; causes of conjunctivitis, common cold, and an acute hemorrhagic cystitis in children; causes of outbreaks among military recruits)


All of the choices are correct (cause common asymptomatic to mild infections; cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; cause problems in renal transplant patients; include the JC virus and BK virus)

The routes of entry for most fungi into the body are

respiratory and cutaneous

Dermatophytoses are

All of the choices are correct (fungal infections of the skin, hair, and nails; also called ringworm; also called tineas; often time-consuming to eradicate completely)

Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton

reservoirs are humans, animals, and soils

The chancre of syphilis

develops into a lesion with firm margins and an ulcerated central crater

Infected animals shed Leptospira interrogans in their


Cholera symptoms are

All of the choices are correct (copious watery diarrhea; loss of blood volume; acidosis, sunken eyes, thirst; hypotension, tachycardia, shock)

The most immediate and important treatment needed to prevent death in Cholera victims is

water and electrolyte replacement

Helicobacter pylori causes

All of the choices are correct (gastritis; duodenal ulcers; stomach ulcers; increased risk for stomach cancer)

Characteristics of rickettsias include

All of the choices are correct (obligate parasites requiring host cells for growth; arthropods serve as life cycle hosts and vectors; gram negative coccobacilli; host cells are required for ATP metabolism)

Which color pigment is produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa?


Brucellosis is

All of the choices are correct (a zoonosis; seen in the patient as a fluctuating fever, with headache, muscle pain and weakness; associated with pathogen in the blood; an occupational illness of people that work with animals)

Pasteurization of milk helps to prevent


Characteristics of all the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae include

ferment glucose

Which disease involves transmission by aerosolized water from whirlpool spas, air conditioners, cooling towers, and supermarket vegetable misters?


All coliforms are

rapid lactose fermenters

Salmonelloses are

All of the choices are correct (not caused by Salmonella typhi; associated with undercooked poultry and eggs, and reptile and rodent feces; gastroenteritis with vomiting and diarrhea; enteric fevers that often include septicemia)

The gram negative bacillus associated with abscesses from dog and cat bites or scratches is

Pasteurella multocida

Anthrax is

All of the choices are correct (a zoonosis; transmitted by contact, inhalation, and ingestion; a disease that, in humans, can cause a rapidly fatal toxemia and septicemia; only seen sporadically in the United States)

The foodborne disease that involves neurotoxin is


Production of a neurotoxin that binds to target sites on spinal cord neurons responsible for inhibiting skeletal muscle contraction is a characteristic of

Clostridium tetani

Production of a neurotoxin that prevents acetylcholine release from motor neurons at neuromuscular junctions is a characteristic of

Clostridium botulinum

This organism can infect deeper wound sites and produce exotoxins, enzymes and gas that cause tissue and muscle necrosis:

Clostridium perfringens

All of the following pertain to Listeria monocytogenes except:


Which is not correct about Mycobacterium species?

all species are human pathogens

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

has a cord factor that can prevent destruction by lysosomes and macrophages

Tuberculin skin testing

All of the choices are correct (injects PPD intradermally; uses a purified protein filtrate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis; will be positive if person has had previous exposure; will be positive in active TB)

A diagnosis of tuberculosis involves

All of the choices are correct (chest X-ray; acid fast stain of sputum; sputum culture; tuberculin skin test)

The enzyme that coagulates plasma is


The most common site where carriers of Staphylococcus aureus carry this pathogen is


The M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes

protects against phagocytosis and enhances adherence

The Group A streptococcal infection that has symptoms of fever, edema of skin near portal of entry, and an elevated red, hot vesicular lesion is


The property of a test to detect even small amounts of antibodies or antigens that are test targets is


The property of a test to detect only a certain antibody or antigen, and not to react with any others, is


When serum proteins are separated by electrophoresis and then antibodies specific for the serum proteins are placed in a parallel trough in order to form reaction arcs for each protein, the test is called


Which of the following methods is categorized as a direct test in order to analyze a specimen?

gram stain

All of the following are routine biochemical tests to aid in identifying a species except


Sputum is obtained by

the patient coughing up mucus from the lower respiratory system.

The bone marrow is where

blood stem cells give rise to immature lymphocytes.

Plasma cells

secrete antibodies.


All of the choices are correct (possess MHC antigens for recognizing self; have membrane receptors that recognize foreign antigens; gain tolerance to self by destruction of lymphocytes that could react against self; develop into clones of B and T cells with extreme variations of specificity)

Superantigens are

bacterial toxins that activate T cells at a 100 times greater rate than other antigens.

The immunoglobulin class that has a dimer form found in mucus, saliva, colostrum, and other body secretions is


The immunoglobulin class that is the only one capable of crossing the placenta is


The immunoglobulin class that has an Fc region that binds to receptors on basophils and mast cells is


The immunoglobulin/s found on the surface of B cells is/are

IgD only.

When antiserum is subjected to electrophoresis, the gamma globulin band contains mostly


The most significant cells in graft rejection are

cytotoxic T cells.

These lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells:

natural killer (NK) cells

Monoclonal antibodies

All of the choices are correct (originate from a single B cell clone; have a single specificity for antigen; are secreted by hybridomas; are used in immunology lab tests and cancer therapy)

Cytotoxic T cells

secrete granzymes and perforins that damage target cells.

An example of artificial active immunity would be

chickenpox vaccine triggers extended immunity to chickenpox.

Which type of cell is severely depressed in AIDS patients?

helper T cells

In the primary response to an antigen, the first class of antibody to be secreted is


In the secondary response to an antigen, the predominant antibody is


Which antibody confers the most important specific local immunity to enteric, respiratory, and genitourinary pathogens?


Immunotherapy is the

All of the choices are correct (use of antitoxins; use of immune serum globulin; conferring of passive immunity; administering of preformed antibodies)

Killed or inactivated vaccines are prepared by

treatment with formalin, heat, or radiation.

Live, attenuated vaccines

All of the choices are correct (include the Sabin polio vaccine; include the measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (MMR); contain viable microbes that can multiply in the person; require smaller doses and fewer boosters compared to inactivated vaccines)

Acellular vaccines and subunit vaccines

contain selected antigenic components of a pathogen rather than whole cells or viruses


contain modified bacterial exotoxin molecules.

Which of the following is a special binding substance that enhances immugenicity and prolongs antigen retention at the injection site?



contain antibodies to neutralize specific toxin.

Which of the immunizations would carry the greatest risk for immunocompromised patients?

attenuated vaccines

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