AP Human Geography Agriculture

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Agribusiness
System of food production involving everything from the development of the seeds to the marketing and sale of food products at the market.
Cash Crops
Planting large amounts of profitable crops for mass production and sell.
Commercial Agriculture
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Double Cropping
Planting and harvesting a crop on a field more than once a year.
GMOs
Foods that\have their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistant, increased productivity, or nutrients value
Intensive Subsistence Farming
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Monoculture
Dependence on a single agricultural commodity.
Mechanization
In agriculture, the replacement of human labor with technology or machines.
Market Gardening
The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers.
Plantation Agriculture
Raising a large amount of a 'cash crop' for local sale or export.
Suitcase Farmers
A farm in which no one reside permanently, they go against the grain of traditional farming. In the US migrant workers provide a cheap, abundant labor source
Sustainable Yield
Rate of crop production that can be maintained over time.
Transhumance
Movement of animal herd to cooler highland areas in the summer to warmer lowland areas in the winter.
Von Thunen Model
Theory that a commercial farmer wull decide which crops to grow and which livestock to raise depending on the proximity to market.
Green Revolution
An outgrowth of the 3rd agricultural revolution, this effort began in the 1940s and developed new strains of hybrid seeds and fertilizers that dramatically increased the crop output possible from each farm.
Nomadism
Dry Areas
Same climate as livestock ranching(commercial farms in MDCs)
Marginalized land
Mixed livestock and grain
Raise domesticated animals and growing feed
Commercial Grain Farming
Wheat belt
Bread-basket US
Corn belt
Mediterranean Agriculture
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados,
Double cropping
Harvesting twice in one year
Employ crop rotation
Intertillage
the clearing of rows in the field through the use of hoes, rakes, & other manual equipment
Truck Farms
Farm where farmers produce fruits for the market
Use mechanization to produce large quantities of fruits and veggies
Agricultural Industrialization
The use of machinery in agriculture, like tractors etc. - makes it easier for farmers to have higher crop yields.
Agricultural Landscape
The land that we farm on and what we choose to put were on our fields.
Agricultural Location Model
An attempt to explain the pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility, costs, distance, and prices.
Aquaculture
Raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages
Biotechnology
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
Chemical Farming
increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
Collective Farm
a farm or group of farms run by the government, as in a communist state
Dairy Farms
specialized in dairy products, N. America, Europe, NOT Africa, South America, Asia
Desertification
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Extensive Commercial Agriculture
A crop or livestock system in which land quality or extent is more important than capital or labor inputs in determining output
Food Manufacturing
The processes that are used to convert raw materials into finished food products
Growing Season
The season in which crops grow best. Growing season can vary by location, societies rely on their growing season to which crops they can or can't grow at their latitude.
Hunting and Gathering
the killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance
Intensive Commercial Agriculture
Intensive farming in a commercial economy, crops have high yields and market value
Livestock Ranching
an extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West
Luxury Crops
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
Pastoralism
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
Organic Agriculture
Approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs.
Pesticides
Chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals.
Plant Domestication
genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
2nd Agriculture Revolution
Innovations led to agricultural surpluses, food surpluses, let people move from farms to factories, growth of cities increased.
Seed Crops
crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants.
crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants.
Specialization
The concentration of the productive efforts of individuals and firms on a limited number of activities
Slash and Burn Agriculture
a farming technique in which trees are cut down and burned to clear and fertilize the land
Swidden
Land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash and burn method.
Third Agriculture Revolution
'green revolution' rapid diffusion of new ag techniques between 1970's and 1980's, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
Soil Erosion
the wearing away and removal of rock and soil particles from exposed surfaces by agents such as moving water, wind, or ice