System of food production involving everything from the development of the seeds to the marketing and sale of food products at the market.
Planting large amounts of profitable crops for mass production and sell.
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Planting and harvesting a crop on a field more than once a year.
Foods that\have their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistant, increased productivity, or nutrients value
Intensive Subsistence Farming
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Dependence on a single agricultural commodity.
In agriculture, the replacement of human labor with technology or machines.
The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers.
Raising a large amount of a 'cash crop' for local sale or export.
A farm in which no one reside permanently, they go against the grain of traditional farming. In the US migrant workers provide a cheap, abundant labor source
Rate of crop production that can be maintained over time.
Movement of animal herd to cooler highland areas in the summer to warmer lowland areas in the winter.
Von Thunen Model
Theory that a commercial farmer wull decide which crops to grow and which livestock to raise depending on the proximity to market.
An outgrowth of the 3rd agricultural revolution, this effort began in the 1940s and developed new strains of hybrid seeds and fertilizers that dramatically increased the crop output possible from each farm.
Dry Areas Same climate as livestock ranching(commercial farms in MDCs) Marginalized land
Mixed livestock and grain
Raise domesticated animals and growing feed
Commercial Grain Farming
Wheat belt Bread-basket US Corn belt
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados,
Harvesting twice in one year Employ crop rotation
the clearing of rows in the field through the use of hoes, rakes, & other manual equipment
Farm where farmers produce fruits for the market Use mechanization to produce large quantities of fruits and veggies
The use of machinery in agriculture, like tractors etc. - makes it easier for farmers to have higher crop yields.
The land that we farm on and what we choose to put were on our fields.
Agricultural Location Model
An attempt to explain the pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility, costs, distance, and prices.
Raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
a farm or group of farms run by the government, as in a communist state
specialized in dairy products, N. America, Europe, NOT Africa, South America, Asia
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Extensive Commercial Agriculture
A crop or livestock system in which land quality or extent is more important than capital or labor inputs in determining output
The processes that are used to convert raw materials into finished food products
The season in which crops grow best. Growing season can vary by location, societies rely on their growing season to which crops they can or can't grow at their latitude.
Hunting and Gathering
the killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance
Intensive Commercial Agriculture
Intensive farming in a commercial economy, crops have high yields and market value
an extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
Approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs.
Chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals.
genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
2nd Agriculture Revolution
Innovations led to agricultural surpluses, food surpluses, let people move from farms to factories, growth of cities increased.
crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants. crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants.
The concentration of the productive efforts of individuals and firms on a limited number of activities
Slash and Burn Agriculture
a farming technique in which trees are cut down and burned to clear and fertilize the land
Land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash and burn method.
Third Agriculture Revolution
'green revolution' rapid diffusion of new ag techniques between 1970's and 1980's, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
the wearing away and removal of rock and soil particles from exposed surfaces by agents such as moving water, wind, or ice