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195 terms


Which famous Greek philosopher wrote extensively about psychological topics such as sleep and dreaming, the senses, memory & learning?
Who was Wilhelm Wundt?
He was a German physiologist who establishes the 1st psychology research lab at the University of Leipzig.
What does psychoanalysis emphasize?
It emphasizes the unconscious causes of behavior.
Sigmund Freud:
believed that experiences in early childhood were critical in the formation of adult personality.
The early school of thought called behaviorism:
grew out of Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov's pioneering research in which he conditioned dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell.
Evolutionary psychology:
applies Darwin's theory about the role of natural selection to human psychological processes.
One of the pie charts in chapter 1 listed the specialty areas of psychologists who had recently received their doctorates. Which area was selected most often?
clinical psychology
Cognitive psychology focuses on the study of:
mental processes, including reasoning and thinking, problem solving, memory, perception, mental imagery, and language.
Lynn has just received a research grant to study the effect of downsizing on morale at a large computer company. Lynn is most likely a(n)___________ psychologist.
Industrial/ Organizational
Professor Anderson is interested in how family relationships change over time. During the last 2 decades, he has kept track of and repeatedly surveyed the same group of 3,000 participants about changes in their relationship with their parents and siblings. Professor Anderson is most likely a __________ psychologist.
_______ psychology is most interested in examining individual differences and the characteristics that make each person unique.
In general, critical thinking refers to the practice of:
actively questioning statements rather than blindly accepting them.
When psychologists systematically observe and record behaviors as they occur in their natural settings, they are using a descriptive method called:
naturalistic observation
A pseudoscience is:
fake or false science that is based on little, or no evidence.
In a study on the effects of caffeine on memory, participants drank a bottle of tasteless water containing 100, 50, or 0 milligrams of caffeine. The participants assigned to the group that got the bottled water with no caffeine represented the ________ in this study.
placebo control group
What percentage of psychological studies in any given year involves non-human animals as participants?
Less than 10%.
A neuroscientist would be most likely to study which of the following topics?
brain development during adolescence
There are roughly ______ neurons in the human brain.
100 billion
The three basic types of neurons are:
sensory, motor neurons & interneurons
Most of the neurons in the human nervous system are:
The fastest neurons in the human body communicate their messages at:
speeds up to 270 mph
Communication between 2 neurons occurs at the:
The most common form of communication between neurons is:
Which of the following best defines a neurotransmitter?
a chemical messenger that crosses the synaptic gap between neurons.
What happens to neurotransmitters that fail to attach to the receptor site?
reuptake-sending neuron reabsorbs and recycles it.
Acetylcholine is:
involved in movement and memory
Which of the following neurotransmitters is implicated in Alzheimer's disease?
Evidence suggests that the addictiveness of some drugs, including cocaine and nicotine, is related to increases in the activity of which of the following neurotransmitters?
dopamine- the pleasure neurotransmitter
Over the course of several months and for no apparent reason, Jennifer became progressively more despondent, withdrawn, and listless. Her doctor accurately diagnosed the problem as major depression and started Jennifer on an antidepressant drug called Prozac. Three weeks later, Jennifer is much improved. Like some other antidepressant drugs, Prozac works by______ the availability of _________ in the brain.
increasing; seratonin
Antianxiety medications such as Valium and Xanax work by________ in the brain.
increasing GABA activity
Which of the following drugs is chemically similar to the endorphins?
After surgery, physicians may prescribe a medication to relieve pain. Such a medication would most likely mimic the effects of:
The involvement of the brains opioid system in "runner's high," suggests one possible explanation for why:
some people can become addicted to excessive exercize
Which of the following drugs mimics the neurotransmitter, Acetylcholine?
In combination, the brain and spinal cord make up the:
central nervous system
Thomas was distracted as he was cooking, and he inadvertently touched a very hot dish. Instantaneously, he jerked his hand back, a reflexive action that was processed:
in his spinal cord.
According to the Critical Thinking box in the text, "'His' and 'Her' Brains," which of the following is TRUE?
All of the above: Men's brain tend to be larger than women's brains, women and men have different proportions of gray to white matter in their brains, In general, the male brain is more asymmetrical and functions are more lateralized than in a female brain.
In psychology, the term sensation refers to:
the process of detecting a physical stimulus, such as light sound, heat, and pressure.
In contrast to sensation, perception is formally defined as the:
active mental process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensory data.
Perception that is below the threshold o conscious perception is called:
subliminal perception
The sensory receptor cells for vision are sensitive to what kind of stimulus?
When psychologists refer to the visible spectrum, they mean:
the narrow range of wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum that the human eye can see.
Which type of sensory receptors are involved in color vision?
cones, but not rods
According to the trichromatic theory of color vision:
cones come in 3 basic varieties: red-sensitive, green-sensitive, or blue-sensitive.
The stimuli that produce the sensation of an odor are:
molecules in the air
How are auditory stimuli transmitted to the brain?
the bending of hair cells stimulates the auditory nerve.
the olfactory nerve transmits messages to the:
olfactory bulb
The primary tastes include:
sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami
Phantom limb pain occurs when a person is experiencing pain:
in an absent body part that was removed by amputation.
The moon illusion refers to the observation that:
the full moon looks so much larger on the horizon than it does when it is in the sky directly above you.
The term gestalt means a:
unified whole, form, or shape
According to the gate- control theory, psychological factors can affect the experience of pain because:
the brain sends signals down the spinal cord to either open or close the pain gates.
The active ingredient in marijuana is:
Which of the following statements about nicotine is false?
Because nicotine in cigarette smoke and other tobacco products produces relaxation, nicotine is technically classified as a depressant.
The most commonly used opiate is:
Tranquilizers are drugs that are:
depressants that relieve anxiety
Alcohol is classified as a:
According to the Focus on Neuroscience, "The Addicted Brain," heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, alcohol, and nicotine all affect levels of which of the following neurotransmitters?
Sleepsex s also called:
Current research concludes that dreams:
reflect the waking concerns and preoccupations of the dreamer and the active processes of trying to make sense of stimuli produced by the brain during sleep.
Freud believes that dream images of sticks, swords, and other elongated objects were representations of ____, and that dream images of cupboards, boxes, and ovens symbolized ____.
the penis; the vagina
REM is an acronym that stands for:
Rapid Eye Movements
The term Circadian Rhythm refers to the:
consistent, daily fluctuations in many biological and psychological processes.
Because attention is limited in capacity, we tend to:
focus on info that is relevant t our immediate or long-term goals.
At any given moment, we are faced with more info that we can effectively process. This suggests that attention is:
limited in capacity
It was the famous American psychologist named ____ who described consciousness a being like a river or a stream.
William James
As you are taking this test right now, you are aware of your thoughts, sensations, memories, and different aspects of the surrounding environment. Collectively this awareness is referred to as:
Psychologists formally define learning as:
a process that produces a relatively permanent/enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience.
A young child has learned to associate the sight of a nurse's white uniform with the fear and pain of getting an injection. If the young child begins reacting with fear to the sight of any white jacket, what has occurred?
stimulus generalization
Every Friday, Dr. Cruz would give a quiz in his psychology class. Students quickly learned to be nervous on Friday mornings, just before each quiz. Halfway through the semester, Dr. Cruz stopped giving quizzes on Fridays and the students' anxiety began to diminish with each passing week in which there was no quiz. The decrease in the students' anxiety may be attributed to the process of:
John B. Watson believed that psychology should study:
observable behavior
Ivan Pavlov was a(n):
Russian physiologist
Who discovered the basic process of classical conditioning?
Ivan Pavlov
The famous "Little Albert" study conducted by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner demonstrated:
that it is possible to classically condition an emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus.
In Pavlov's original experiments, dogs were classically conditioned to respond to the ringing of a bell with salivation. According to Robert Rescorla, what had the dogs learned?
that the bell was a signal that reliably predicted that food would follow.
Positive reinforcement ____ the likelihood of a behavior's being repeated. Negative reinforcement _____ the likelihood of a behavior's being repeated.
increases; increases
Awards, frequent flyer points, and college degrees are examples of:
conditioned reinforcements
According to B.F. Skinner:
environmental factors determine a person's behavior.
In an operant conditioning experiment, a pigeon learned to peck at a blue disk to get a food pellet. The researcher then withheld reinforcement, and eventually the bird stopped pecking the disk. This example illustrates:
The famous Bobo doll research was conducted by ___ an showed the power of ____.
Albert Bandura; observational learning
Jake is a recovering alcoholic. He has not had a drink of alcohol in over 6 months. One of the strategies that Jake has used to remain abstinent has been to stay away from bars, avoid parties in which alcohol is served, and even find new friends who do not drink alcohol. Jake is overcoming the short-term reinforcement he associated with alcohol use by using which strategy.
stimulus control
Mindy is in nursing school and is learning how to measure a patient's blood pressure. Her instructor first shows the class a video that demonstrates the proper procedures for measuring blood pressure and then demonstrates these same procedures using Mindy as "patient". Mindy and her class are learning how to measure blood pressure in patients through the use of:
observational learning
If exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior, the response of passivity is termed:
learned helplessness
Which psychologist studied the development of taste aversions, noting how they seem to violate the basic principles of classical conditioning?
John Garcia
What is the most valid conclusion to be drawn about the different models of conditioning and learning?
The principles of operant and classical conditioning are generally valid, but cannot account for all aspects of behavior.
Professor Lake is a strong advocate of the behavioral perspective. He would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements?
Human behavior is shaped by experience and environmental events.
What was Pavlov studying when he began his studies on the phenomenon that eventually became known as classical conditioning?
the role of saliva in digstion
Memory is formally defined as:
the mental processes that enable us to acquire, retain, and retrieve information.
We transform information into a form that can be entered and retained by the memory system. The process is known as:
___ is the process of retaining information in memory so that it can be used at a later time.
According to the stage model of memory:
memory involves the stages of sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-tern memory.
Short-term memory is often referred to as ___ memory.
Information is stored in short-term memory for about:
twenty seconds
While auditory sensory memory can last for about ____, visual sensory memory lasts for about ___.
3 to 4 seconds; half a second
working memory:
refers to the active, conscious manipulation of temporarily stored information.
Essay tests are to ___ as matching tests are to ___.
free recall; cued recall
This multiple choice test question is a good example of using ___ to test long-term memory.
Forgetting that is caused by "encoding failure" means that the information:
cannot be retrieved because it was never encoded into the long-term memory in the first place.
Justin was involved in an automobile accident and sustained a serious injury to his head. When asked about the accident, Justin could not remember what happened or how the accident occurred. Justin seemed to be suffering from:
retrograde amnesia
During the EARLIEST stages of Alzheimer's disease, the most common symptoms are:
forgetting names of familiar people and the location of familiar places.
The tip-of-the-tongue experience is a common example of:
retrieval failure
The term used to describe the mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge is:
The psychological process that involves manipulating mental representations of information in order to draw references and conclusions is called:
Problem solving is defined as:
thinking and behavior directed toward attaining a goal that is not readily available.
A decision-making strategy that involves evaluating all the options one characteristic at a time, starting with the most important, and disregarding an option if it doesn't meet that criterion, is called the:
elimination by aspects model
During World War I, the U.S. military developed the _____ to screen millions of recruits.
Army Alpha, and the Army Beta tests
According to some psychologists, there is a heritability estimate of about 50% for intelligence in the general population. This statement means that:
about half of the difference in IQ scores among people within a particular group is due to the differences in their genetic makeup.
According to Howard Gardner's theory of intelligence, there are __ distinct types of intelligence.
Language is a highly structured system that follows specific rules for combining words. These rules are referred t as the ___ of a language.
Trial and error is defined as:
a problem-solving strategy that involves attempting different solutions and eliminating those that don't work.
A characteristic of human language is that we can communicate meaningfully about ideas, objects, and activities that are not physically present. This characteristic is called:
Motivation is defined as:
the biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that act on or within an organism to activate and direct behavior.
In his landmark text, Principles of Psychology, _____ included fear, disgust, greediness, cleanliness, modesty, and parental love in his list of human instincts.
William James
Which influential scientist inspired psychologists, such as William James and William McDougal, to devise lists of instincts to account for human behavior?
Charles Darwin
"People have a sociability motive because interacting with others affords more opportunities to find a potential mate." This statement best illustrates ___ theories of motivation.
The view that some human motives are innate and due to genetic programming is a description of:
instinct theories
When you feel cold, you engage in behavior to reduce this unpleasant feeling, such as putting on your coat. This desire to reduce internal tension is a crucial aspect of ____ theories of motivation.
____ refers to the notion that the body monitors and maintains internal states, such as body temperature and energy supplies, at relatively constant levels.
"Oh, man, that was awesome! Lets do it again!" Marcela said as she climbed out of the front roller coaster seat. Which category of motivational theories would best explain Marcela's behavior?
arousal theories
____ motivational theories emphasize the importance of psychological and cognitive factors in humans, including the motivation to strive for a positive self-concept and the realization of personal potential.
The motivation to eat is influenced by:
All of these factors: psychological, biological, and social/ cultural factors.
_____ is the main source of energy in your body.
The rate at which your body uses energy for vital bodily functions when at rest is called the:
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
High blood levels of the hormone, ghrelin:
stimulates appetite and eating behavior.
According to Maslow's humanistic theory of motivation, what must people do before they can strive for the realization of their personal potential and creative abilities?
satisfy basic and psychological needs.
Olivia I taking advanced placement biology in high school because she loves science and is fascinated by biology. Jacob is taking advanced placement biology in high school because his guidance counselor told him he ad to if he intended to apply to a pre-med program at a competitive university. Olivia is motivated by _____, while Jacob is motivated by_____.
intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation
____ motivation is the desire to engage in tasks that the person finds inherently satisfying and enjoyable, novel, or optimally challenging.
____ motivation consists of external influences on behavior, such as rewards, social evaluations, rules, and responsibilities.
extrinsic motivation
Psychologists define the term ____ as a complex psychological state that involves subjective experience, a psychological response, and a behavioral or expressive response.
Who was one of the first scientists to systematically study emotional expression, including facial expressions and body language used to express different emotions?
Charles Darwin
According to Charles Darwin, emotions:
reflect evolutionary adaptions that help people and animals survive and reproduce.
When it was published in 1872, The Expressions of the Emotions in Man and Animals became a bestseller. Who was the author?
Charles Darwin
Most emotion researchers agree that the basic emotions are:
sadness, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise, and anger.
_____ are fleeting facial expressions that can serve as nonverbal cues indicating deception.
Paul Ekman, a leading researcher in the expression of emotion, has estimated that the human face is capable of:
creating more than 7,000 different expressions.
The biological category of male or female as defined by physical differences in genetic composition and in reproductive anatomy and functions is referred to as:
The term gender is formally defined as:
the cultural, social, and psychological meanings that are associated with masculinity and femininity.
As part of her research on gender differences, dr. Martin is measuring cognitive differences in a large group of male and female freshman college students. She will be most likely to find that, on the average, th female students will score:
higher than the males on verbal, reading, and writing skills.
On the average, females ________ males on the national tests of math skills.
score the same as
Research on sexual attitudes and behavior show that:
men have more permissive sexual attitudes than women, including greater acceptance of casual sex.
Psychologists Petersen and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis that combined the results of more than 800 previous studies that investigated whether men and women differ in their sexual attitudes, preferences, and behaviors. The results revealed that, on the average:
men reported greater acceptance of casual sex and more sexual partners than women.
Which of the following statements about gender and emotion is true?
In American culture, women tend to be more emotionally expressive than men.
In looking at gender differences on emotion, psychologist Agneta Fischer and her colleagues analyzed cross-cultural data from 37 countries from around the world. The researchers found that across cultures:
women report experiencing and expressing more sadness, fear and guilt, while men reported experiencing and expressing more anger and hostility.
The fact that most parents in the United States don't dress their newborn boys in pink clothes illustrates the:
persuasiveness and force of cultural and societal expectations regarding gender roles.
Whenever Julie played with toy vehicles or blocks her mother would be very disapproving. Whenever she played with dolls and domestic toys her mother would smile and praise her. As Julie grew up, she played with less and less "boy" toys and more and more with dolls, dollhouses, and domestic accessories. This description of gender-role development exemplifies:
social learning theory
The term _____ is used to describe an individual who undergoes hormonal treatments and a sex-change surgery to physically transform his or her body into that of the opposite sex.
The shortest stage of the human sexual response is:
In both men and women, sexual activity and motivation is biologically influences by bodily levels of:
The term sexual orientation describes:
whether an individual's sexual and emotional attraction is directed toward members of the same sex, opposite sex or both sexes.
Death results from being infected with HIV when the virus eventually:
weakens the immune system t the point that it can no longer defend the body against infection.
According to Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, infancy is characterized by the psychosocial conflict of:
trust vs. mistrust
The three basic parenting styles described by psychologist Diana Baumrind are:
authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive
List in the correct sequence the five stages of the dying process that were identified by Kubler-Ross.
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
In comparison to male friendships, female friendships tend to focus on:
talking about their feelings, problems, and interpersonal relationships.
In comparison to when young adults got married in 1960, the median age for first marriage in 2009 was:
older for males and females
In psychology, the term personality refers to:
an individual's unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
Freud's famous technique of free association involved patients:
spontaneously reporting mental images, thoughts, and feelings as they came to mind.
In Freud's theory, which component of personality is present at birth and completely unconscious?
the id
The term Freudian slip refers to:
an unintentional mistake, accident or misstatement that Freud interpreted as revealing unconscious wishes or motives.
____ had a strong influence on Freud's early career, introducing him to the use of hypnosis in treating patients with psychological problems.
Joseph Breuer
Which definition reflects Freud's view on the id?
the irrational component of the personality that seeks immediate gratification.
In Freud's theory, if a parent overindulges or frustrates a child's expression of pleasurable feelings at a particular psychosexual stage of development:
the child may experience fixation and continue to seek pleasure through behaviors associated with that particular psychosexual stage.
According to Carl Jung, the collective unconscious:
is partof the unconscious mind that reflects human evolutionary history and is common to all people.
According to Bandura's theory, which of the following factors is likely to contribute to the self-regulation of behavior?
observing other people's behavior and the consequences of their actions.
The field of behavioral genetics studies include:
influence of genes and heredity on behavior.
Which of the following represents the correct order of Freud's psychosexual stages of development?
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
According to Freud, the basic goals of the id:
seek pleasure and immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives, especially sexual ones.
Personality theories:
attempt t explain how and why people are similar and different.
Early in his medical career, Freud investigated the anesthetic properties of :
The publication of the book entitled _____ in 1895 is regarded as the formal beginning of psychoanalysis.
Studies of Hysteria
Which definition reflects Freud's view of the ego?
the rational, organized component of personality that is sensitive to the demands of the external world.
Your sense of conscious corresponds to which component of personality in Freud's theory?
Which of the following statements reflects Freud's view of the superego?
It is the moralistic and self-evaluative component of personality.
When 7 year old Philip was caught pocketing a candy bar that he had not paid for, he felt ashamed and guilty. Using Freud's terminology, the sense of shame and guilt that Philip felt was a product of his:
Freud used the term _____ to refer specifically to sexual energy or motivation.
The acronym "DSM-IV-TR" stands for:
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision
Regarding the difference between normal and abnormal behavior, which of the following statements is true?
The difference between normal and abnormal is often a matter of degree.
An unpleasant emotional state that involves feelings worry, dread, apprehension and tension, along with heightened physical arousal is called:
The most common symptoms of a ______ are a pounding heart, rapid breathing, breathless, and a choking sensation. The person may also sweat, tremble, ad experience light headedness, chills, or hot flashes. Accompanying the intense, escalating surge of physical arousal are feelings of terror and the belief that one is about to die, go crazy, or completely lose control.
panic attack
Which of the following is an example of the development of a phobia through observational learning?
Matilda develops a fear of spiders after years of seeing her mother and older sister react with extreme fear whenever they see a spider.
Over the last 3 months, Ivana's feelings of despondency have intensified for no apparent reason. Although her friends have tried to be encouraging and supportive, Ivana says that she is feeling completely detached from people, worthless and has even thought about killing herself. Ivana's symptoms would suggest that she is probably suffering from:
major depression
Rita , who lives in Alaska, has been diagnosed with Seasonal Affective Disorder. She is most likely to:
have repeated episodes of major depression in the fall and winter months when there is the least amount of sunlight.
Bipolar disorder used to be officially called ____ and is still often referred to by that term.
manic depression
In the last three days, Doug has become progressively more energetic and euphoric. He has been sleeping no more than an hour or two per night, but he seems to have unlimited energy. Doug is inappropriately self-confident as he veers from one grandiose idea to another in his plans to become rich and famous. Doug appears to be experiencing:
a manic episode
Some people suffer from a milder but chronic form of bipolar disorder in which they experience moderate but frequent mood swings for 2 years or longer. This disorder is called:
cyclothymic disorder
Statistically, women are ____ as men tend to be diagnosed with bipolar disorder.
The onset of bipolar disorder is most likely to occur:
when the person is his or her early 20's
People who have anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have ____ brain activity of the neurotransmitter ______.
decreased; seratonin
Although Jenna had never given Rob any reason to suspect her of being unfaithful to him, whenever Jenna went out without him, Rob constantly questioned her about her behavior and whereabouts when she returned. After Rob's behavior started to become even more controlling. Jenna finally told Rob that she didn't want to date him anymore. Rob reacted with rage and even more accusations. After the breakup, Rob began following her. Jenna finally got a restraining order to make him stop. In this scenario, Rob is displaying behaviors that characterize:
paranoid personality disorder
Borderline personality disorder is characterized by:
erratic, unstable relationships, emotions, and self image and desperate efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.
The most controversial dissociative disorder that involves extensive memory disruptions along with the presence of two or more distinct identities. This disorder is called:
dissociative identity disorder
According to one explanation for dissociative identity disorder, the disorder represents a way to:
cope with extreme abuse or trauma in childhood
Typically, schizophrenic hallucinations involve:
voice or visual stimuli
A relatively common symptom in schizophrenia is that the person responds with greatly reduced emotional expressiveness, including facial expressions. This particular symptom is referred to as:
flat effect
The most common type of schizophrenia is the _____ type.