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Bio 1st semester Final 2017
Terms in this set (47)
Characteristics of life (properties)
Def: Seven properties and processes that we associate with life: Order, Reproduction, Growth and Development, Energy Processing, Regulation, Response to Environment, and Evolutionary Adaptation. 1. Order - Ordered structure that typifies life. Living cells make up this complex organization. (ex. Structure of sunflower's pollen area) --2. Reproduction - Organisms reproduce their own kind. (ex. baby African elephant walking beneath its mother)
3 .Growth and Development - Inherited information in the form of DNA controls the pattern of growth and development of all organisms. (ex. The hatching of a crocodile, baby development)
4. Energy processing - Use of chemical energy stored in plants to power its own activities and chemical reactions. (ex. Caterpillar using chemical energy stored in plant it eats)
5. Regulation - processes organisms use to maintain internal environment, keeping it within limits that sustain life. (ex. A lizard "sunbathing" to raise its body temperature on cool mornings)
6. Response to the Environment - All organisms respond to environmental stimuli. (ex. Venus flytrap closing its trap to stimulus of fly landing on it) 7. Evolutionary Adaptation - Adaptations that evolve over many generations as individuals with traits best suited to their environment have greater reproductive success and pass their traits to offspring. (ex. Snowy owl's sharp talons facilitate prey capture and its feathered feet keep it warm in its cold habitat)
Levels of organization (hierarchy of organization)
-- In this order from biggest to smallest: Biosphere, Ecosystem, Community, Population, Organism, Organ System, Oran, Tissue, Cell, Organelle, Molecule.
All organisms living in a particular area as well as the physical components with which the organism interact, such as air, soil, water, and sunlight.
All cells have DNA, and the continuity of life depends on this universal genetic material. DNA is the chemical substance of genes, the units inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring. Genes, controlled by chromosomes, also control all the activities of a cell.
Darwin's theory of natural selection
A mechanism for evolution, Natural selection. Observation 1; Individual variation. Individuals in a population vary in the traits, many inherit from parents to offspring. Observation 2; Overproduction of offspring. Lots of offspring, more than what the environment can produce in terms of food. Competition for food= many offspring do not survive childhood. Inference 3; Unequal reproductive success. Animals with better traits suited for the environment can result in a better chance of surviving and reproducing. Inference 2; accumulation of favorable traits over time. because of unequal reproduction success, higher proportions of individuals in the population will have a advantageous traits.
Control in an experiment - controlled experiment
An experiment in which an experimental group is compared with a control group that varies only in the factor being tested
Most common elements in living organisms
Parts of an atom and their location
All atoms of a particular element have the same unique number of protons. This number is the element's atomic number
The total mass of a atom; also all the atomic weight. Given as a whole number, the atomic mass approximately equals the mass number
A level of electrons at a characteristic average distance from the nucleus of an atom
Covalent bond vs. ionic bond
Properties of water
A solution in which water is the solvent
Properties of water
Properties of carbon
Functional groups of organic molecules
A macro molecule, usually a protein that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
A giant molecule that is formed by the joining of a smaller molecules, usually be the dehydration reaction: a protein, carbohydrate, or nucleic acid
Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
A microscope that uses an electron beam to study the surface details of a cell of other specimens
Bacteria vs Plant cell vs Animal cell
Properties of cells
Fluid Mosaic Model
the currently accepted model of cell membrane structure, depicting the membrane as a mosaic of diverse proteins molecules embedded in a fluid of bi layer phospholipid molecules.
Composition of a cell membrane
The random movement of particles that result in the net movement of s substance down its concentration gradient from a region were it is more concentrated to a region where it is less concentrated
The diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane
The passage of a substance through a specific transport protein across a biological membrane down in its concentration gradient
Kinetic energy vs. potential energy vs. chemical energy
A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds.
The aerobic harvesting off energy from food molecules; the energy-releasing chemical breakdown of food molecules, such as glucose, and the storage of potential energy in a form that cell can use to perform work; involving glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.
Oxidation - Reduction reactions
Stages of cellular respiration
End products of the citric acid cycle
¿What is the function of the chloroplast?
¿What is reduced and what is oxidized in photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
¿Where does the light reactions occur?
¿Where does the Calvin cycle occur?
¿What is happening during the light reaction?
¿What is the function of photons?
¿What are the reactants and products in photosynthesis?
¿What happens in the mitochondria?
¿What happens in the chloroplasts?
¿What are the similarities of cellular respiration and photosynthesis?
¿How do C4, CAM, and C3 plants differ?
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