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Human Origins Final

Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (35)

-1.8 - 0.6 MYA
-Larger brain than early Homo (~900 CC)
-Smaller jaws and cheek teeth, flatter face (not as prognathic as Australopithecus)
-Had a supraorbital torus (brow ridge) and an occipital torus (bump on the back of the cranium) -Postcrania well known including the very complete skeleton of Turkana boy. This skeleton shows that H. ergaster had modern human limb proportions (they were no longer spending as much time in the trees), and was within the range of human height today. H. ergaster was an efficient biped (and possibly an efficient long distance runner for pursuit hunting).

-Early H. ergaster found with Oldowan industry (Mode 1) primitive stone tools, and more recent H. ergaster found with Acheulean industry tools (Mode 2: bifaces = hand axes). The Acheulean industry went unchanged with hand axes known from Africa ~1.7 MYA to Europe ~0.5 MYA.

-Hominins found from 1.8 MYA in Dmanisi, Georgia, represent the oldest evidence of hominins out of Africa. These fossils have a smaller cranial capacity than Homo ergaster and more in range of early Homo, but have modern human-like limb proportions (not longer arms as in H. habilis). Variation among crania at this site suggests only one species of early Homo and that it was a polytypic species (made up of several geographical / morphological variants).

-When fossils of Homo erectus were originally found in the late 1800s in Indonesia, it marked the first evidence of intermediate forms between humans and apes as Darwin predicted (H. erectus had a smaller brain than modern humans (~900 CC), yet a femur indicating bipedalism).

-Possible cranial differences between Homo erectus and H. ergaster: H. erectus appears to have a thicker skull with a more massive face, occipital torus, brow ridge, and sagittal keel.