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corticotropin releasing factor (or hormone), it is an initiator of biologic brain responses to stress...released in hypothalamus, and peripherally at inflammatory sites. it causes vasodilation and increased vascular permeability. Its primary target is the mast cell
interactions of the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems in the stress response
stressor signals the hypothalamus to release CRF...activates the HPA axis and the autonomic nervous system. the production of CRF is initiated by a high level of IL-1
stress induced catecholamine
release from the adrenal medulla and results in peripheral vasoconstriction
are sympathomimetic "fight-or-flight" hormones that are released by the adrenal glands in response to stress. They are part of the sympathetic nervous system.
a substance produced by lymphocytes, macrophages, and fibroblasts and enhances phagocytic activity.
increases heart rate and contractility. increased venous return to the heart and increased cardiac output and blood pressure. epinephrine dilates blood vessels of the muscles and cause transient hyperglycemia
released from the adrenal medulla. it increases mental alertness and shifts blood from the viscera and skin to the dilated vessels (from epinephrine). the steroid hormones are stimulated by the hypothalamus, which sets off a chain of events in which steroid hormones are secreted from the adrenal cortex. (cortisol is one of the main steroid hormones.)
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