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summarize the major interactions of the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems in the stress response. flow chart pg 63 workbook


corticotropin releasing factor (or hormone), it is an initiator of biologic brain responses to stress...released in hypothalamus, and peripherally at inflammatory sites. it causes vasodilation and increased vascular permeability. Its primary target is the mast cell

interactions of the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems in the stress response

stressor signals the hypothalamus to release CRF...activates the HPA axis and the autonomic nervous system. the production of CRF is initiated by a high level of IL-1

stress induced catecholamine

release from the adrenal medulla and results in peripheral vasoconstriction

stress induced stimulation of the adrenal cortex

causes the adrenal cortex to release cortisol


biochemicals that are secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to stress


the cytokine produced by macrophages stimulating the release of CRF


an interleukin that increases ACTH levels


are sympathomimetic "fight-or-flight" hormones that are released by the adrenal glands in response to stress. They are part of the sympathetic nervous system.


a neurotransmitter augmenting the action of catecholamine


a substance produced by lymphocytes, macrophages, and fibroblasts and enhances phagocytic activity.


inhibit pain, CRF secretion and blood pressure increases.


increases heart rate and contractility. increased venous return to the heart and increased cardiac output and blood pressure. epinephrine dilates blood vessels of the muscles and cause transient hyperglycemia


released from the adrenal medulla. it increases mental alertness and shifts blood from the viscera and skin to the dilated vessels (from epinephrine). the steroid hormones are stimulated by the hypothalamus, which sets off a chain of events in which steroid hormones are secreted from the adrenal cortex. (cortisol is one of the main steroid hormones.)

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